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Volume 10(2); April 2019
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Editorial
Gone with the Wind
Hae-Wol Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):49-50.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.01
  • 1,768 View
  • 64 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Effect of Exposure to 2.5 μm Indoor Particulate Matter on Adult Lung Function in Jakarta
Eky Pramitha, Budi Haryanto
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):51-55.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.02
  • 2,360 View
  • 185 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Lung function impairment due to exposure to indoor air pollution of particulate matter size 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) is not well documented in Jakarta.

Methods

To assess whether there is an association between indoor PM2.5 concentration and lung function impairment among the adult population, a cross-sectional design was implemented. There were 109 adults selected aged between 20 years and 65 years from the Pulo Gadung industrial area, East Jakarta. Association and logistic regression analysis were implemented for statistical analysis of the data.

Results

The average exposure to indoor PM2.5 was 308 μg/m3. There were 38.5% of participants that had lung function impairment. PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with lung function impairment among the adult population living in Pulo Gadung industrial area after controlling for gender, duration of exposure, ventilation, smoking status, and humidity.

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that PM2.5 concentrations in the Pulo Gadung industrial area may be the main contributor to the impairment of lung function for adults living in the surrounding residential area.

Associated Factors of Ischemic Heart Disease Identified Among Post-Menopausal Women
Jin Suk Ra, Hye Sun Kim, Yeon-Hee Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):56-63.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.03
  • 4,366 View
  • 116 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study identifies associated factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD) among post-menopausal Korean women at the biomedical (age, family history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or cerebro-cardiovascular disease, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome), biosocial (socioeconomic status and educational level), and psychosocial levels (stress, depression, smoking, binge alcohol consumption, and physical activity).

Methods

This study used a cross-sectional design with secondary data analysis of the 2013–2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from 3,636 women were analyzed by logistic regression analysis using a complex sample procedure.

Results

Of the biomedical factors, older age [odds ratio (OR): 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.87–4.80, p < 0.001], family history (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.44–3.65, p = 0.001), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.27–2.95, p = 0.002) were associated with IHD in post-menopausal women. Of the psychosocial factors, depression (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.66–3.96, p < 0.001) and smoking (OR: 1.92, CI: 1.04–3.55, p = 0.038) were associated with IHD in post-menopausal women.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that healthcare providers need to consider the contributing adverse effects of older age, family history, metabolic syndrome, depression and smoking when evaluating risk factors for IHD in post-menopausal women.

Nutritional Status of Indonesian Children in Low-Income Households with Fathers that Smoke
Maria Wijaya-Erhardt
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):64-71.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.04
  • 17,777 View
  • 180 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared the nutritional status of children in low-income households in Indonesia whose fathers were either cigarette smokers or non-smokers.

Methods

A cross sectional study of 482 children aged 2–6 years was conducted, stratified by whether the fathers were non-smoking (n = 138) or smoking (n = 340). Mothers and smoking fathers were interviewed about socioeconomic status and cigarette expenditure, respectively. The nutritional status of children was defined by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height.

Results

Both groups had similar income. Households with a father that smoked, spent 16.6% of their income on cigarettes. Children whose fathers did not smoke had higher height-for-age (−1.99 vs. −2.25 Z-score, p = 0.02) than children whose fathers smoked. Weight-for-age in children with fathers that did not smoke was greater (−1.49 vs. −1.64 Z-score) but not statistically significantly different to those children with fathers that smoked, nor was child weight-for-height (−0.46 vs. −0.45 Z-score). The prevalence of stunted growth was higher in the children with a father that smoked compared with those that had a father did not smoke (62.2 vs. 49.6%, p = 0.07, respectively). There were 28.3% of children underweight in homes where the fathers did not smoke, and 35.6% in households where the father smoked (p = 0.11). Wasting was observed in 4.4% children where fathers did not smoke and 4.7% where fathers did smoke.

Conclusion

With similar income constraints, the degree of height growth faltering was less in children whose fathers did not smoke, compared to those whose fathers did smoke.

Perceived Psychological Traumatic Childbirth in Iranian Mothers: Diagnostic Value of Coping Strategies
Sedigheh Abdollahpour, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Habibollah Esmaily, Ahmad Khosrav
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):72-77.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.05
  • 19,531 View
  • 36 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of a stress coping scale for predicting perceived psychological traumatic childbirth in mothers.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 400 new mothers (within 48 hours of childbirth). Psychological traumatic childbirth was evaluated using the 4 diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Coping was measured using Moss and Billings’ Stress Coping Strategies Scale.

Results

The overall mean score of stress coping was 29 ± 14.2. There were 193 (43.8%) mothers that had experienced a psychological traumatic childbirth. A stress coping score ≤ 30, with a sensitivity of 90.16 (95% CI = 85.1–94.0), and a specificity of 87.44 (95% CI = 82.1–91.6), was determined as a predictor of psychological traumatic childbirth. So that among mothers with stress coping scores ≤ 30, 87% had experienced a psychological traumatic childbirth.

Conclusion

Investigating the degree of coping with stress can be used as an accurate diagnostic tool for psychological traumatic childbirth. It is recommended that during pregnancy, problem-solving and stress management training programs be used as psychological interventions for mothers with low levels of stress control. This will ensure that they can better cope with traumatic childbirth and post-traumatic stress in the postpartum stage.

Factors Influencing Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Passive Inhalation in Student Nurses
Sun-A Park, Do-Hoon Lee, Hee-Su Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):78-84.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.06
  • 2,186 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To examine the factors affecting passive exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in non-smoking student nurses.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed in 196 college students who had not smoked cigarettes in the past 12 months. Urinary cotinine levels were examined to identify exposure to SHS, and social factors were identified that influenced exposure to SHS, including requests that smokers extinguish cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the factors influencing SHS.

Results

Urinary cotinine measurements showed that 32 students (16.3%) were exposed to SHS. Risk factors that increased exposure to SHS affected 80 students (40.8%) in the previous 7 days. Students who were exposed to SHS were 4.45-times more likely to have increased urinary cotinine levels than those who were not exposed. Students who asked others to extinguish their cigarettes were 0.34 times less likely to test positive than those who did not.

Conclusion

Urinary cotinine was a useful biomarker for identifying exposure to SHS, with respect to the influence of demographic, health-related, and smoking-related factors. In non-smoking nursing students, avoiding exposure to SHS was attributed to self-assertive behavior by requesting smokers to extinguish cigarettes.

The Effects of Restricted Physical Activity on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Depression
Deok-Ju Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):85-92.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.07
  • 2,696 View
  • 63 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objective was to identify restricted physical activity in patients with depression, and to determine the effects of that restricted activity, on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Methods

Data was analysed from Year 1 of the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII-1). From a total sample of 8,150 subjects, 277 adults aged ≥19 years who were diagnosed with depression were selected. The results were derived using restricted activity and HRQOL data measured from the subjects.

Results

Most of the participants were females ≥ 50 years old. HRQOL scores were high in the “self-care” dimension and low in the “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression” dimensions. Their restricted activity due to illness in the past year, led to increases in participants being bedridden or absent from work. Many participants reported being bedridden for more than 3 months. A higher number of absences owing to illness in the past year, and longer durations of being bedridden, had a negative impact on HRQOL. Age, marital status, educational level, income level, and occupation were the sociodemographic variables that had an impact on HRQOL.

Conclusion

Patients with depression experiencing stress in their daily lives should take measures to avoid illness and pain that may lead to them becoming bedridden, and employ lifestyle habits with support from families and community health promotion centres, where mental health counselling can be accessed.

Gender-Specific Relationship Between Executive Function and Self-Rated Health
Mi Sook Jung, Kyoung Suk Lee, Mijung Kim, Hyeri Yun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):93-101.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.08
  • 4,734 View
  • 34 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Self-rated health is a comprehensive measure of health. As gender difference in self-rated health is found, identifying gender-specific factors related to self-rated health is important. Poor executive functioning negatively affects an individual’s independence and healthy lifestyle, but it is unknown relationships between executive function and self-rated health and gender differences in these relationships. Therefore, gender differences were examined in the relationship between executive function and self-rated health in the community.

Methods

Individuals completed questionnaires about their health status and subjective decline in executive function. Neuropsychological tests were also performed to assess objective executive functioning. Two separate multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted by gender.

Results

Better objective executive function was related to greater self-rated health scores (better self-rated health) in men alone (βs = 0.341), while better subjective executive function was significantly associated with greater self-rated health scores in both men and women (βs = 0.385 and 0.443, respectively).

Conclusion

Gender differences are important when reporting perceived health status, in particular the different effects of subjective and objective executive function on self-rated health across genders. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential value of subjective executive function complaints when evaluating health status.

Comparison of Foot Structure, Function, Plantar Pressure and Balance Ability According to the Body Mass Index of Young Adults
Se-Yeon Park, Du-Jin Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):102-107.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.09
  • 3,114 View
  • 174 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared foot arch height, plantar fascia thickness, a range of motion assessments of the ankle joint, strength of the ankle joint, plantar pressure, and balance between obese and normal weight young adults.

Methods

Fifty-two participants were required for the present study design to achieve 80% power, 0.8 effect size (η2), and an alpha level of 0.05. The participants were categorized to normal weight or obese groups based on BMI (≤ 24 kg/m2 and ≥ 25 kg/m2, respectively). The foot and ankle disability index and Sport survey were completed by the participants before the measurements. Foot arch height was measured using the navicular drop test, and plantar fascia thickness was measured using ultrasound. Plantar pressure and balance tests were also conducted, followed by ankle joint range of motion and strength tests.

Results

Foot arch height and plantar fascia thickness was significantly higher in the obese group compared with the normal weight group (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in eversion of ankle strength, plantar pressure in the big toe and heel and anterior-posterior balance between normal and obese weight groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Obese young adults had more abnormalities in the medial longitudinal arch, plantar fascia, and plantar pressure as well as weakened ankle eversion strength and balance problems compared with the normal weight group.

Short Communication
Percentage Body Fat is As a Good Indicator for Determining Adolescents Who Are Overweight or Obese: A Cross-Sectional Study in Vietnam
Le Thu Trang, Nguyen Nam Trung, Dinh-Toi Chu, Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):108-114.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.10
  • 3,066 View
  • 48 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To identify trends in percentage body fat (PBF) in adolescents to determine gender-specific classification thresholds for being overweight and obese.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 899 adolescents (11 to 14.5 years) from Hanoi and Nam Dinh was conducted in Vietnam. PBF, subcutaneous fat and percentage of lean mass were measured directly using OMRON HBF 375 scales to measure bioelectrical impedance.

Results

PBF decreased in boys with increasing age (p < 0.001). The difference in PBF between boys and girls, significantly increased with age after 12.5 years (p < 0.001). There was a stronger correlation between PBF and fat content (Pearson’s r = 0.860, p < 0.0001) than that between (BMI) and fat content (Pearson’s r = 0.521, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of being overweight or obese in girls was similar when determined by PBF or BMI. Hanoi had higher rates of adolescents being overweight or obese compared with Nam Dinh.

Conclusion

PBF provides a more accurate body assessment for being overweight or obese in adolescents compared with BMI.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives