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Volume 10(6); December 2019
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Editorial
One Bite Away
Hae-Wol Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):325-326.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.01
  • 2,129 View
  • 45 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension Subtypes Among the Adult Population in Nepal: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey Data
Rajat Das Gupta, Animesh Talukdar, Shams Shabab Haider, Mohammad Rifat Haider
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):327-336.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.02
Correction in: Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2022;13(1):80
  • 3,648 View
  • 87 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aims to determine the prevalence, and associated factors of undiagnosed hypertension [Systolic Diastolic Hypertension (SDH), Isolated Systolic Hypertension (ISH) and Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH)] in the Nepalese adult population.

Methods

Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 data from adults (≥ 18 years) was used in this study. The final weighted sample size was 13,393. Blood pressure (BP) was measured 3 times and the average of the second and third measurement was reported. SDH (systolic BP (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg), ISH (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and DBP < 90 mmHg), and IDH (SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg) were measured. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to find the association between the independent variables and the covariates.

Results

The prevalence of SDH, IDH and ISH were 8.1%, 7.5%, and 3.3% respectively. The odds of having SDH and ISH increased with old age. However, the odds of having IDH decreased with increasing age. Females has lower odds of having SDH and IDH compared with male participants. Individuals that had been married, resided in Province 4 (p < 0.05) or 5 (p < 0.01) were statistically significantly associated with having IDH. Being overweight or obese was statistically significantly associated with all 3 HTN subtypes (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The necessary steps should be taken so that public health promotion programs in Nepal may prevent and control undiagnosed hypertension.

Distribution of Pathogenic Vibrio Species in the Coastal Seawater of South Korea (2017–2018)
Seung Hun Lee, Hee Jung Lee, Go Eun Myung, Eun Jin Choi, In A Kim, Young Il Jeong, Gi Jun Park, Sang Moon Soh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):337-342.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.03
  • 3,106 View
  • 159 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Pathogenic Vibrio species are widely distributed in warm estuarine and coastal environments, and can infect humans through the consumption of raw or mishandled contaminated seafood and seawater. For this reason, the distribution of these bacteria in South Korea was investigated.

Methods

Seawater samples were collected from 145 coastal area points in the aquatic environment in which Vibrio species live. Environmental data (i.e., water temperature, salinity, turbidity, and atmospheric temperature) was collected which may help predict the distribution of the species (data not shown). Seawater samples were filtered, and incubated overnight in alkaline peptone water, at 37°C. Using species-specific polymerase chain reaction methods, screening tests were performed for the hlyA, ctxA, vvhA, and tlh genes. Clones of pathogenic Vibrio species were isolated using 3 selective plating media.

Results

In 2017, total seawater isolation rates for Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae (non-pathogenic, non-O1, non-O139 serogroups), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were 15.82%, 13.18%, 65.80%, respectively. However, in 2018 isolation rates for each were 21.81%, 19.40%, and 70.05%, respectively.

Conclusion

The isolation rates of pathogenic Vibrio species positively correlated with the temperature of seawater and atmosphere, but negatively correlated with salinity and turbidity. From 2017 to 2018, the most frequent seawater-isolated Vibrio species were V. parahaemolyticus (68.10 %), V. vulnificus (16.54%), and non-toxigenic V. cholerae (19.58%). Comprehensive monitoring, prevention, and control efforts are needed to protect the public from pathogenic Vibrio species.

An Investigation into Chronic Conditions and Diseases in Minors to Determine the Socioeconomic Status, Medical Use and Expenditure According to Data from the Korea Health Panel, 2015
Jong-Hoon Moon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):343-350.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.04
  • 2,613 View
  • 133 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared the socioeconomic status, medical use and expenditures for infants (1–5 years), juveniles (6–12 years), and adolescents (13–19 years) with a chronic condition or disease to determine factors affecting health spending.

Methods

Data from 3,677 minors (< 20 years old, without disabilities) were extracted from the Korea Health Panel (2015) database.

Results

Minors with chronic conditions or diseases were older (juveniles, and adolescents; p < 0.001), and included a higher proportion of Medicaid recipients (p = 0.004), a higher use of hospital outpatient care (p < 0.001), and higher medical expenditure (p < 0.001) compared to minors without chronic conditions or diseases. Boys were more likely to have a chronic condition or disease than girls (p = 0.036). Adolescents and juveniles were more likely than infants to have a chronic condition or disease (p = 0.001). Medicaid recipients were more likely to have a chronic condition or disease than those who were not Medicaid recipients (p = 0.008). Minors who had been hospital outpatients were more likely to have a chronic condition or disease, compared with minors who had not been an outpatient (p = 0.001). Having a chronic condition or disease, was a factor increasing medical expenditure (p = 0.001). Medical expenditure was higher in infants than in juveniles and adolescents (p = 0.001). Infants had higher rates of medical use when compared with juveniles and adolescents (p = 0.001).

Conclusion

These findings suggest that systematic health care management for minors with chronic conditions or diseases, is needed.

Annual Fluctuation in Chigger Mite Populations and Orientia Tsutsugamushi Infections in Scrub Typhus Endemic Regions of South Korea
Seong Yoon Kim, Byoungchul Gill, Bong Gu Song, Hyuk Chu, Won Il Park, Hee Il Lee, E-hyun Shin, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Jong Yul Roh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):351-358.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.05
  • 3,096 View
  • 191 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Chigger mites are vectors for scrub typhus. This study evaluated the annual fluctuations in chigger mite populations and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections in South Korea.

Methods

During 2006 and 2007, chigger mites were collected monthly from wild rodents in 4 scrub typhus endemic regions of South Korea. The chigger mites were classified based on morphological characteristics, and analyzed using nested PCR for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi.

Results

During the surveillance period, the overall trapping rate for wild rodents was 10.8%. In total, 17,457 chigger mites (representing 5 genera and 15 species) were collected, and the average chigger index (representing the number of chigger mites per rodent), was 31.7. The monthly chigger index was consistently high (> 30) in Spring (March to April) and Autumn (October to November). The mite species included Leptotrombidium pallidum (43.5%), L. orientale (18.9%), L. scutellare (18.1%), L. palpale (10.6%), and L. zetum (3.6%). L. scutellare and L. palpale populations, were relatively higher in Autumn. Monthly O. tsutsugamushi infection rates in wild rodents (average: 4.8%) and chigger mites (average: 0.7%) peaked in Spring and Autumn.

Conclusion

The findings demonstrated a bimodal pattern of the incidence of O. tsutsugamushi infections. Higher infection rates were observed in both wild rodents and chigger mites, in Spring and Autumn. However, this did not reflect the unimodal incidence of scrub typhus in Autumn. Further studies are needed to identify factors, such as human behavior and harvesting in Autumn that may explain this discordance.

Study of the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy, General Health and Burnout Among Iranian Health Workers
Mohammad Amiri, Hassan Vahedi, Seyed Reza Mirhoseini, Ahmad Reza Eghtesadi, Ahmad Khosravi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):359-367.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.06
  • 3,083 View
  • 154 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To evaluate the relationship between self-efficacy, general health and burnout of the staff at Shahroud University of Medical Sciences.

Methods

In 2015, 249 staff at Shahroud University of Medical Sciences (from a total reference population of 520 staff members) were selected through stratified random sampling. To collect the data, Sherer self-efficacy Scale, General Health Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. The collected data were analyzed through ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests using SPSS 16. The relationship between self-efficacy, general health and burnout (latent factors) were studied using structural equation modeling with Stata 14.

Results

The mean age of participants was 36.97 ± 7.60 years, and the mean number of years work experience was 12.29 ± 7.57. The mean scores of general health, self-efficacy and burnout were 28.24 ± 11.14, 62.30 ± 9.21 and 81.67 ± 22.18, respectively. The results of the study showed a statistically significant relationship between self-efficacy and general health which equals −0.32. A statistically significant relationship also existed between burnout scores and general health scores (beta = 0.78).

Conclusion

The results showed that high self-efficacy improves the general health of employees at the Shahroud University of Medical Sciences and reduces burnout. Special attention should be paid to self-efficacy in the prevention of burnout.

A Study on the Physical Activities, Mental Health, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Osteoarthritis Patients
Deok-Ju Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):368-375.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.07
  • 3,363 View
  • 207 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical activities, mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of osteoarthritis patients.

Methods

This study was conducted using data from the first year of the 7th Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. There were 8,150 participants included in the survey, and 665 participants had been diagnosed with osteoarthritis. This study analyzed the measurements of physical activities, depression, and HRQOL in participants with osteoarthritis.

Results

The mean age of the participants was 67 ± 9.9 years and 83.1% were female. Participants rarely engaged in work-related physical activity, and engaged in leisure-related physical activities infrequently. Most of the participants (85.9%) did not do regular exercise, but 1/3 of the participants walked for over 10 minutes a day. “Pain/discomfort” had the least impact upon HRQOL, and among the depression subcategories, “difficult to sleep and tiredness” had the most impact. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an adverse HRQOL score was statistically significantly associated with “location changes/physical activities” (p < 0. 01), “depression” (p < 0.001) and “age” (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

Exercise programs should be in place which are manageable in everyday life for the elderly (> 65 years). Changes in daily routine so that patients become more active, should be supported by the family and community, together with assistance in managing psychological problems such as depression.

Impact of Dengue Surveillance Workers on Community Participation and Satisfaction of Dengue Virus Control Measures in Semarang Municipality, Indonesia: A Policy Breakthrough in Public Health Action
Sayono Sayono, Widoyono Widoyono, Didik Sumanto, Rokhani Rokhani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):376-384.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.08
  • 2,899 View
  • 77 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess community participation in Dengue virus control measures, and community satisfaction in the Dengue surveillance workers (DSWs) performance in Semarang municipality after 3 years of empowerment.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey involved 1,018 selected participants from 12 groups of social roles in 141 villages in Semarang municipality, Indonesia. A direct interview was performed using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the acceptance, and satisfaction of the community towards the DSWs. The data were analyzed descriptively.

Results

The majority of the members of the community considered that the DSWs play an important role in reducing Dengue cases, and vectors of the Dengue virus, as well as increasing the community participation in Dengue control measures. The survey showed that DSWs performance, attitudes, and abilities regarding their main tasks were perceived to be good.

Conclusion

Overall, people in Semarang municipality were satisfied with the performance of the DSWs, and considered them important enough to be maintained and strengthened in the future so that Dengue could be controlled. This new policy needs to be disseminated to other regions that may encounter the problems associated with Dengue virus.

Mediation Effects of Basic Psychological Needs Between Autonomy Support from Healthcare Providers and Self-Management Among Cancer Survivors
Eun-Jung Bae, Yun-Hee Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):385-393.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.09
  • 2,867 View
  • 172 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study examined the mediating effects of basic psychological needs between patient autonomy support from healthcare providers, and self-management among cancer survivors.

Methods

This study collected data from 148 cancer patients who had visited D hospitals in B city, Korea. A structured questionnaire was distributed to determine patient characteristics, healthcare provider autonomy support, basic psychological needs, and self-management. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis that implemented Baron and Kenny’s method for mediation were used for analyses.

Results

Self-management was significantly correlated with the level of healthcare provider autonomy support (r = 0.38, p < 0.001), autonomy (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), competence (r = 0.25, p = 0.002), and relatedness (r = 0.32, p < 0.001). Furthermore, autonomy (β = 0.30, p < 0.001) and relatedness (β = 0.22, p = 0.008) had partial mediating effects on the relationship between healthcare provider autonomy support and self-management (Z = 3.13, p = 0.002 and Z = 2.29, p = 0.022, respectively).

Conclusion

Autonomy and relatedness mediated the impact of healthcare provider autonomy support for self-management among cancer survivors. This suggests that strategies for enhancing autonomy and relatedness should be considered when developing self-management interventions for cancer survivor patients.

Estimation of the Size of Dengue and Zika Infection Among Korean Travelers to Southeast Asia and Latin America, 2016–2017
Chaeshin Chu, Een Suk Shin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):394-398.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.10
  • 2,243 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To estimate the number and risk of imported infections resulting from people visiting Asian and Latin American countries.

Methods

The dataset of visitors to 5 Asian countries with dengue were analyzed for 2016 and 2017, and in the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, imported cases of zika virus infection were also reported. For zika virus, a single imported case was reported from Brazil in 2016, and 2 imported cases reported from the Maldives in 2017. To understand the transmissibility in 5 Southeast Asian countries, the estimate of the force of infection, i.e., the hazard of infection per year and the average duration of travel has been extracted. Outbound travel numbers were retrieved from the World Tourism Organization, including business travelers.

Results

The incidence of imported dengue in 2016 was estimated at 7.46, 15.00, 2.14, 4.73 and 2.40 per 100,000 travelers visiting Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam, respectively. Similarly, 2.55, 1.65, 1.53, 1.86 and 1.70 per 100,000 travelers in 2017, respectively. It was estimated that there were 60.1 infections (range: from 16.8 to 150.7 infections) with zika virus in Brazil, 2016, and 345.6 infections (range: from 85.4 to 425.5 infections) with zika virus in the Maldives, 2017.

Conclusion

This study emphasizes that dengue and zika virus infections are mild in their nature, and a substantial number of infections may go undetected. An appropriate risk assessment of zika virus infection must use the estimated total size of infections.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives