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4 "Iraj Pakzad"
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Review Article
Worldwide prevalence of fungal coinfections among COVID-19 patients: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis
Saber Soltani, Milad Zandi, Samireh Faramarzi, Ramin Shahbahrami, Mohebat Vali, Sara Akhavan Rezayat, Reza Pakzad, Pooneh Malekifar, Iraj Pakzad, Neda Jahandoost, Jalal Moludi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(1):15-23.   Published online February 8, 2022
  • 7,732 View
  • 123 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Microbial coinfections can increase the morbidity and mortality rates of viral respiratory diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of fungal coinfections in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, and Embase were searched without language restrictions to identify the related research on COVID-19 patients with fungal coinfections from December 1, 2019, to December 30, 2020. A random-effects model was used for analysis. The sample size included 2,246 patients from 8 studies. The pooled prevalence of fungal coinfections was 12.60%. The frequency of fungal subtype coinfections was 3.71% for Aspergillus, 2.39% for Candida, and 0.39% for other. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe and Regional Office for Southeast Asia had the highest (23.28%) and lowest (4.53%) estimated prevalence of fungal coinfection, respectively. Our findings showed a high prevalence of fungal coinfections in COVID-19 cases, which is a likely contributor to mortality in COVID-19 patients. Early identification of fungal pathogens in the laboratory for COVID-19 patients can lead to timely treatment and prevention of further damage by this hidden infection.
Original Articles
Specification of Bacteriophage Isolated Against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Ahmad Nasser, Reza Azizian, Mohsen Tabasi, Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo, Fatemah Sadeghpour Heravi, Morovat Taheri Kalani, Norkhoda Sadeghifard, Razieh Amini, Iraj Pakzad, Amin Radmanesh, Farid Azizi Jalilian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):20-24.   Published online February 28, 2019
  • 9,012 View
  • 74 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The emergence of resistant bacteria is being increasingly reported around the world, potentially threatening millions of lives. Amongst resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most challenging to treat. This is due to emergent MRSA strains and less effective traditional antibiotic therapies to Staphylococcal infections. The use of bacteriophages (phages) against MRSA is a new, potential alternate therapy. In this study, morphology, genetic and protein structure of lytic phages against MRSA have been analysed.


Isolation of livestock and sewage bacteriophages were performed using 0.4 μm membrane filters. Plaque assays were used to determine phage quantification by double layer agar method. Pure plaques were then amplified for further characterization. Sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA were run for protein evaluation, and genotyping respectively. Transmission electron microscope was also used to detect the structure and taxonomic classification of phage visually.


Head and tail morphology of bacteriophages against MRSA were identified by transmission electron microscopy and assigned to the Siphoviridae family and the Caudovirales order.


Bacteriophages are the most abundant microorganism on Earth and coexist with the bacterial population. They can destroy bacterial cells successfully and effectively. They cannot enter mammalian cells which saves the eukaryotic cells from lytic phage activity. In conclusion, phage therapy may have many potential applications in microbiology and human medicine with no side effect on eukaryotic cells.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Characterization of a Vibrio parahaemolyticus-targeting lytic bacteriophage SSJ01 and its application in artificial seawater
    Jungu Kang, Yoonjee Chang
    Food Science and Biotechnology.2024; 33(6): 1505.     CrossRef
  • Isolation and encapsulation of bacteriophage with chitosan nanoparticles for biocontrol of multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from broiler poultry farms
    Mona M. Elsayed, Rasha M. Elkenany, Ayman Y. EL-Khateeb, Nehal M. Nabil, Maram M. Tawakol, Heba M. Hassan
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • P1 Bacteriophage-Enabled Delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 Antimicrobial Activity Against Shigella flexneri
    Yang W. Huan, Vincenzo Torraca, Russell Brown, Jidapha Fa-arun, Sydney L. Miles, Diego A. Oyarzún, Serge Mostowy, Baojun Wang
    ACS Synthetic Biology.2023; 12(3): 709.     CrossRef
  • Staphylococcus aureus Dormancy: Waiting for Insurgency
    Ahmad Nasser, Shiva Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Maryam Banar, Azin Sattari-Maraji, Taher Azimi
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.2023; 24(15): 1898.     CrossRef
  • Recent advance on nanoparticles or nanomaterials with anti-multidrug resistant bacteria and anti-bacterial biofilm properties: A systematic review
    Farhad Moradi, Arshin Ghaedi, Zahra Fooladfar, Aida Bazrgar
    Heliyon.2023; 9(11): e22105.     CrossRef
  • Isolation and characterization of lytic bacteriophages from sewage at an egyptian tertiary care hospital against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates
    Safia Samir, Amira El-Far, Hend Okasha, Rania Mahdy, Fatima Samir, Sami Nasr
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.2022; 29(5): 3097.     CrossRef
  • Staphylococcus aureus: Biofilm Formation and Strategies Against it
    Ahmad Nasser , Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Shiva Jahanbakhshi, Taher Azimi, Leila Nikouei
    Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.2022; 23(5): 664.     CrossRef
  • An Anti-MRSA Phage From Raw Fish Rinse: Stability Evaluation and Production Optimization
    Israa M. Abd-Allah, Ghadir S. El-Housseiny, Mohammad Y. Alshahrani, Samar S. El-Masry, Khaled M. Aboshanab, Nadia A. Hassouna
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular mechanisms of Shigella effector proteins: a common pathogen among diarrheic pediatric population
    Ahmad Nasser, Mehrdad Mosadegh, Taher Azimi, Aref Shariati
    Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Metal-Containing NP Approach to Treat Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Prospects and Challenges
    Wendy Wai Yeng Yeo, Sathiya Maran, Amanda Shen-Yee Kong, Wan-Hee Cheng, Swee-Hua Erin Lim, Jiun-Yan Loh, Kok-Song Lai
    Materials.2022; 15(17): 5802.     CrossRef
  • Electrochemical Biosensors for Pathogen Detection: An Updated Review
    Morteza Banakar, Masoud Hamidi, Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Janak Sapkota, Reza Azizian, Dinesh Rokaya
    Biosensors.2022; 12(11): 927.     CrossRef
  • Isolation of a lytic bacteriophage for Helicobacter pylori
    Sara Khosravi, Razieh Amini, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Seyed Saman Talebi, Farid Azizi Jalilian
    Gene Reports.2021; 23: 101107.     CrossRef
  • Bacteriophage Therapy for Critical and High-Priority Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Phage Cocktail-Antibiotic Formulation Perspective
    Gursneh Kaur, Ritika Agarwal, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
    Food and Environmental Virology.2021; 13(4): 433.     CrossRef
  • A comprehensive review of bacterial osteomyelitis with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus
    Ahmad Nasser, Taher Azimi, Soheila Ostadmohammadi, Samaneh Ostadmohammadi
    Microbial Pathogenesis.2020; 148: 104431.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of the Three New Kayviruses and Their Lytic Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Natalia Łubowska, Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz, Katarzyna Kosznik-Kwaśnicka, Agata Zauszkiewicz-Pawlak, Alicja Węgrzyn, Barbara Dołęgowska, Lidia Piechowicz
    Microorganisms.2019; 7(10): 471.     CrossRef
Anti-biofilm Properties of Peganum harmala against Candida albicans
Elham Aboualigalehdari, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Morovat Taherikalani, Zaynab Zargoush, Zahra Tahmasebi, Behzad Badakhsh, Arman Rostamzad, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):116-118.   Published online April 30, 2016
  • 3,382 View
  • 21 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vaginitis still remains as a health issue in women. It is notable that Candida albicans producing biofilm is considered a microorganism responsible for vaginitis with hard to treat. Also, Peganum harmala was applied as an anti fungal in treatment for many infections in Iran. Therefore, this study goal to investigate the role of P. harmala in inhibition of biofilm formation in C. albicans.
So, 27 C. albicans collected from women with Vaginitis, then subjected for biofilm formation assay. P. harmala was applied as antibiofilm formation in C. albicans.
Our results demonstrated that P. harmala in concentration of 12 μg/ml easily inhibited strong biofilm formation; while the concentrations of 10 and 6 μg/ml inhibited biofilm formation in moderate and weak biofilm formation C. albicans strains, respectively.
Hence, the current study presented P. harmala as antibiofilm herbal medicine for C. albicans; but in vivo study suggested to be performed to confirm its effectiveness.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of Peganum harmala Extract on Biofilm and Involved Gene Expression in Biofilm Production of Candida albicans
    Maryam Erfaninejad, Elham Aboualigalehdari, Mahnaz Fatahinia
    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Antifungal Mechanisms of a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Cao Huang Gui Xiang, Against Candida Species
    Huizhen Yue, Xiaolong Xu, Shasha He, Xuran Cui, Yuhong Guo, Jingxia Zhao, Bing Peng, Qingquan Liu
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An overview on ethnobotanico-pharmacological studies carried out in Morocco, from 1991 to 2015: Systematic review (part 1)
    Jamila Fakchich, Mostafa Elachouri
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2021; 267: 113200.     CrossRef
  • Improving health benefits with considering traditional and modern health benefits of Peganum harmala
    Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, Qi Cheng
    Clinical Phytoscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Phytomedicine from Middle Eastern Countries: An Alternative Remedy to Modern Medicine against Candida spp Infection
    Mohammad Zubair Alam, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan, Jenny Wilkinson
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medic.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • In vitro and in vivo activity of Peganum harmala L. alkaloids against phytopathogenic bacteria
    Hanan A. Shaheen, Marwa Y. Issa
    Scientia Horticulturae.2020; 264: 108940.     CrossRef
  • Molecules and Metabolites from Natural Products as Inhibitors of Biofilm in Candida spp. pathogens
    Rajeev K. Singla, Ashok K. Dubey
    Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry.2019; 19(28): 2567.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus lotus and Peganum harmala
    Leila Ait Abderrahim, Khaled Taïbi, Chahinez Ait Abderrahim
    Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transac.2019; 43(2): 409.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Biofilm Formation and Anti-biofilm Properties of Peganum Harmala and Crocus Sativus in Shigella Flexneri Clinical Isolates
    Mahsa Jalili, Mansour Amraei, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Sobhan Ghafourian
    The Open Microbiology Journal.2019; 13(1): 297.     CrossRef
  • PgTeL, the lectin found in Punica granatum juice, is an antifungal agent against Candida albicans and Candida krusei
    Pollyanna Michelle da Silva, Maiara Celine de Moura, Francis Soares Gomes, Danielle da Silva Trentin, Ana Patrícia Silva de Oliveira, Gabriela Souto Vieira de Mello, Maira Galdino da Rocha Pitta, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rego, Luana Cassandra Breitenb
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.2018; 108: 391.     CrossRef
  • Antibiofilm activities of norharmane and its derivatives against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria
    Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Sang Hee Shim, Jintae Lee
    Phytomedicine.2017; 36: 254.     CrossRef
  • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Peganum harmala extract as a green route
    Matin Azizi, Sajjad Sedaghat, Kambiz Tahvildari, Pirouz Derakhshi, Ahad Ghaemi
    Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews.2017; 10(4): 420.     CrossRef
High Prevalence of AmpC β-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli in Ilam, Iran
Abbas Maleki, Afra Khosravi, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad, Shiva Hosseini, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):201-204.   Published online June 30, 2015
  • 3,276 View
  • 31 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics could cause resistance to this group of antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria through the production of the enzyme β-lactamases. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular detection of AmpC β-lactamases among clinical Escherichia coli isolated from Ilam hospitals in Ilam, Iran.
One hundred and twelve clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from hospitalized patients and were identified by biochemical tests. They were evaluated for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) production, and the positive strains were subjected to AmpC enzymes; for detection of AmpC cluster genes, multiplex polymerase chain reaction was applied.
The analysis showed 62.5% of isolates were ESBLs positive and that five strains revealed the AmpC cluster genes. This is the first report of FOXM cluster genes in E. coli in Iran.
Based on our results, the prevalence of AmpC β-lactamases is increasing in Iran, which caused failure in antibiotic therapy. So, the current study recommended the revision of antibiotic policy in Iranian hospitals.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of ESBL and AmpC genes in E. coli isolates from urinary tract infections in the north of Iran
    M. Sadeghi, H. Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, A. Mojtahedi
    New Microbes and New Infections.2022; 45: 100947.     CrossRef
  • Amp-CKlebsiella-Induced Chorioamnionitis and Associated Abnormalities in Cardiotocography: A Case Report with a Narrative Review
    Sufia Athar, Anvar P. Vellamgot, Lolwa Mohammed Alansari, Mohd Adnan
    Case Reports in Infectious Diseases.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Molecular characteristics, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and antibiotic resistance determinants in uropathogenic fluoroquinolone resistant-Escherichia coli isolates
    Hassan Valadbeigi, Masoumeh HatamiLak, Abbas Maleki, Ebrahim Kouhsari, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
    Gene Reports.2020; 18: 100584.     CrossRef
  • High prevalence of blaCMY AmpC beta-lactamase in ESBL co-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. clinical isolates in the northeast of Iran
    Kobra Salimiyan Rizi, Arman Mosavat, Masoud Youssefi, Saeid Amel Jamehdar, Kiarash Ghazvini, Hadi Safdari, Yousef Amini, Hadi Farsiani
    Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance.2020; 22: 477.     CrossRef
  • Evaluating the antimicrobial resistance and frequency of AmpC β-lactamases bla gene in Gram-negative bacteria isolates collected from selected hospitals of Iran: A multicenter retrospective study
    Fatemeh Fallah, Taher Azimi, Leila Azimi, Abdollah Karimi, Mohammad Rahbar, Mehdi Shirdoust, Iraj Sedighi, Ata Saadat Sadeghi, Shahnaz Armin
    Gene Reports.2020; 21: 100868.     CrossRef
  • Plasmid-Mediated AmpC β-Lactamase CITM and DHAM Genes Among Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates

    Subhas Chandra Aryal, Milan Kumar Upreti, Anil Kumar Sah, Mehraj Ansari, Krishus Nepal, Binod Dhungel, Nabaraj Adhikari, Binod Lekhak, Komal Raj Rijal
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2020; Volume 13: 4249.     CrossRef
  • Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli from chicken meat
    Md. Masudur Rahman, Asmaul Husna, Hatem A. Elshabrawy, Jahangir Alam, Nurjahan Yasmin Runa, A. T. M. Badruzzaman, Nahid Arjuman Banu, Mohammad Al Mamun, Bashudeb Paul, Shobhan Das, Md. Mahfujur Rahman, A. T. M. Mahbub-E-Elahi, Ahmed S. Khairalla, Hossam M
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    Khanda Anoar, Sherko Omer, Bayan Majid, Hero Rahim, Shno Muhammed
    JOURNAL OF SULAIMANI MEDICAL COLLEGE.2018; 8(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • Bacteraemia due to AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in hospitalized cancer patients: risk factors, antibiotic therapy, and outcomes
    Qing Zhang, Wenfang Zhang, Zheng Li, Changsen Bai, Ding Li, Shan Zheng, Peng Zhang, Sihe Zhang
    Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.2017; 88(3): 247.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives