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Short Communication
COVID-19 outbreak and risk factors for infection in a taekwondo gym in the Republic of Korea
Seung Hwan Shin, Eonjoo Park, Sookhyun Kim, Minji Jang, Subin Park, Dong-Hwi Kim, Tae Jong Son, Ji-Hyuk Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):162-170.   Published online March 31, 2022
  • 1,984 View
  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Relatively few studies have assessed risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public facilities used by children and adolescents. This study presents an analysis of a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred in a taekwondo gym in Korea, predominantly among children and adolescents, with the aim of providing insights on managing COVID-19 outbreaks in similar facilities. Methods: All 108 taekwondo gym students and staff received COVID-19 tests. A survey and closed-circuit television analyses were used to identify risk factors. A univariate analysis was conducted, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward elimination for variables with a significance level <0.10 in the univariate analysis. Results: COVID-19 was confirmed in 30 of 108 subjects at the taekwondo gym (attack rate, 27.8%). The outbreak started in an adult class student. This student transmitted the virus to the staff, who consequently transmitted the virus to adolescent students. In the univariate analysis, the relative risk for younger age (≤9 years) was 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–4.54; p=0.054), and that for food consumption inside the gym was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.04–4.30; p=0.048). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for younger age was 2.96 (95% CI, 1.07–8.20; p=0.036), and that for food consumption inside the gym was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.10–8.17; p=0.032). Conclusion: Food consumption inside the facility and young age were significant risk factors for COVID-19 transmission in this taekwondo gym. Food consumption should be prohibited in sports facilities, and infection prevention education for young students is also required.
Original Article
COVID-19 in Nursing Facilities: Experience in Republic of Korea
Rok Song, Hee-Sook Kim, Seok-Ju Yoo, Kwan Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Joon Ho Jang, Gyoung-Sook Ahn, Jun-Nyun Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):164-169.   Published online August 31, 2020
  • 5,326 View
  • 136 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in nursing facilities can easily lead to a high rate of infection and fatality. A surge in newly infected cases in the first quarter of 2020 in Gyeongsan-si, in the Republic of Korea, was followed by several outbreaks in nursing facilities in the same area. The aim of this study is to report on the epidemiological investigation and the management to reduce the infection rate in nursing facilities for older adults.


The municipal government and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed an epidemiological investigation into 5 nursing facilities that reported a high number of COVID-19 infection cases from February to May 2020. COVID-19 infected cases in the facilities were investigated to identify the infection routes, and the fatality rate of the 5 facilities.


The 5 facilities had a combined fatality rate of 12.2% (9 deceased among the 74 infected cases). The median age of the deceased was 87 years old (range: 82–91). The infection was first identified on February 27th, 2020, peaked on March 6th, and was last detected on March 24th, 2020.


Difficulties specific to such facilities included the delay in the recognition of symptoms and limitation in distancing. Tailored strategies such as daily monitoring of symptoms and proactive COVID-19 screening of quarantined residents, contributed to a decline in the infections in the facilities.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and corresponding control measures on long-term care facilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Jun Zhang, Yushan Yu, Mirko Petrovic, Xiaomei Pei, Qing-Bao Tian, Lei Zhang, Wei-Hong Zhang
    Age and Ageing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Using Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions and High Isolation of Asymptomatic Carriers to Contain the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Nursing Homes
    Alec J. Schmidt, Yury García, Diego Pinheiro, Thomas A. Reichert, Miriam Nuño
    Life.2022; 12(2): 180.     CrossRef
  • An Experience of the Early Stage of COVID-19 Outbreak in Nursing Homes in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
    Gawon Choi, Na-young Kim, Seon-young Lee, Hae Deun Noh, Heeyoung Lee
    Korean Journal of Clinical Geriatrics.2022; 23(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • Promising Best Practices Implemented in Long- Term Care Facilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic to Address Social Isolation and Loneliness: A Scoping Review
    Idrissa Beogo, Nebila Jean-Claude Bationo, Stephanie Collin, Diane Tapp, Jean Ramdé, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Eric Nguemeleu Tchouaket, Drissa Sia
    Journal of Long-Term Care.2022; 0(2022): 298.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology and clinical features of COVID-19 outbreaks in aged care facilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Mohammad Rashidul Hashan, Nicolas Smoll, Catherine King, Hannah Ockenden-Muldoon, Jacina Walker, Andre Wattiaux, Julieanne Graham, Robert Booy, Gulam Khandaker
    EClinicalMedicine.2021; 33: 100771.     CrossRef
  • The experience of executing preventive measures to protect a nursing home in Taiwan from a COVID-19 outbreak
    Chia-Yu Huang, Yu-Hung Kuo, Shu-Ting Chuang, Hung-Rong Yen, Sio-Ian Tou
    European Geriatric Medicine.2021; 12(3): 609.     CrossRef
  • Everyday life in a Swedish nursing home during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative interview study with persons 85 to 100 years
    Qarin Lood, Maria Haak, Synneve Dahlin-Ivanoff
    BMJ Open.2021; 11(6): e048503.     CrossRef
Necessity of a Surveillance System for Tick-borne Encephalitis
Seok-Ju Yoo, Ji-Hyuk Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):155-155.   Published online April 30, 2017
  • 2,462 View
  • 22 Download
  • 3 Citations


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • TBE in South Korea
    Song Joon Young
    Tick-borne encephalitis - The Book.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • TBE in South Korea
    Song Joon Young
    Tick-borne encephalitis - The Book.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Joon Young Song
    Tick-borne encephalitis - The Book.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):34-39.   Published online February 28, 2014
  • 2,179 View
  • 17 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Food- and water-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the trends in FBDOs in Korea and established emerging causal pathogens and causal vehicles.
We analyzed FBDOs in Korea by year, location, causal pathogens, and causal vehicles from 2007 to 2012. Information was collected from the FBDOs database in the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
During 2007–2012, a total of 1794 FBDOs and 48,897 patients were reported. After 2007, FBDOs and patient numbers steadily decreased over the next 2 years and then plateaued until 2011. However, in 2012, FBDOs increased slightly accompanied by a large increase in the number of affected patients. Our results highlight the emergence of norovirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli other than enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in schools in 2012. We found that pickled vegetables is an emerging causal vehicle responsible for this problem.
On the basis of this study we recommend intensified inspections of pickled vegetable manufacturers and the strengthening of laboratory surveillance of relevant pathogens.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Phage biocontrol of zoonotic food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus for seafood safety
    Jung Hyen Lee, Minjin Oh, Byoung Sik Kim
    Food Control.2023; 144: 109334.     CrossRef
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    Kindu Geta, Mulugeta Kibret
    Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.2022; Volume 15: 1403.     CrossRef
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    Hyojin Kim, Mi Sook Chung
    Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science.2018; 34(5): 519.     CrossRef
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    Teshome Belachew, Amete Mihret, Tesfaye Legesse, Yihenew Million, Kassu Desta
    BMC Research Notes.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Inhibitory Effects of Allium chinense and Its Dimethyl Disulfide against Murine Norovirus as a Surrogate for Foodborne Virus
    Mi Sook Chung
    Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science.2018; 34(2): 222.     CrossRef
  • Inactivation of norovirus surrogates by kimchi fermentation in the presence of black raspberry
    Garam Bae, Jeongwon Kim, Hyojin Kim, Jong Hyeon Seok, Dan Bi Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, Mi Sook Chung
    Food Control.2018; 91: 390.     CrossRef
  • Metagenomic Sequencing for Surveillance of Food- and Waterborne Viral Diseases
    David F. Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P. G. Koopmans
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods
    Lili Wang, Hiromi Nakamura, Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Yukiko Hara-Kudo, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
    International Journal of Food Microbiology.2017; 249: 44.     CrossRef
  • Complete genome sequence ofVibrio parahaemolyticusFORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water
    Han Young Chung, Eun Jung Na, Kyu-Ho Lee, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyunjin Yoon, Ju-Hoon Lee, Hyeun Bum Kim, Heebal Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Bong-Soo Kim, David Rasko
    Pathogens and Disease.2016; 74(4): ftw032.     CrossRef
  • An outbreak of norovirus infection associated with fermented oyster consumption in South Korea, 2013
    H. G. CHO, S. G. LEE, M. Y. LEE, E. S. HUR, J. S. LEE, P. H. PARK, Y. B. PARK, M. H. YOON, S. Y. PAIK
    Epidemiology and Infection.2016; 144(13): 2759.     CrossRef
  • Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea
    Sung-Geun Lee, Han-Gil Cho, Soon-Young Paik
    BMB Reports .2015; 48(2): 61.     CrossRef
  • Three Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in South Korea Caused by the Consumption of Kimchi Tainted by Norovirus GI.4
    Ji-Hyuk Park, Sunyoung Jung, Jaeseung Shin, Jeong Su Lee, In Sun Joo, Deog-Yong Lee
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease.2015; 12(3): 221.     CrossRef
  • Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India
    Sinosh Skariyachan, Arpitha Badarinath Mahajanakatti, Nisha Jayaprakash Grandhi, Akshatha Prasanna, Ballari Sen, Narasimha Sharma, Kiran S Vasist, Rajeswari Narayanappa
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Detection of viable murine norovirus using the plaque assay and propidium-monoazide-combined real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
    Minhwa Lee, Dong Joo Seo, Jina Seo, Hyejin Oh, Su Been Jeon, Sang-Do Ha, Jinjong Myoung, In-Soo Choi, Changsun Choi
    Journal of Virological Methods.2015; 221: 57.     CrossRef
  • Emergence of Norovirus GII.4 variants in acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in South Korea between 2006 and 2013
    Han-Gil Cho, Po-Hyun Park, Sung-Geun Lee, Ju-Eun Kim, Kyung-A Kim, Hyeun-Kyong Lee, Eun-Mi Park, Myong-Ki Park, Sun-Young Jung, Deog-Yong Lee, Mi-hye Yoon, Jong-Bok Lee, Soon-Young Paik
    Journal of Clinical Virology.2015; 72: 11.     CrossRef
Epidemiological Characteristics of Serologically Confirmed Q Fever Cases in South Korea, 2006–2011
Wooseok Kwak, Hyuk Chu, Seondo Hwang, Ji-Hyuk Park, Kyu Jam Hwang, Jin Gwack, Young-Sil Choi, Seung-Ki Youn, Mi-Yeoun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):34-38.   Published online February 28, 2013
  • 2,432 View
  • 15 Download
  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Q fever has been reported worldwide; however, there was almost no official report of Q fever in Korea. In this study, we describe the current status of human Q fever occurrence in Korea.
Demographic data of Q fever patients were collected from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System from 2006 to 2011. Case investigation reports from regional public health departments were used for additional information, like risk factors and clinical manifestation, of the patients since 2008.
There were 65 serologically confirmed cases during the study period. The annual notification rate of Q fever was 0.22 cases per million persons. The majority of cases were men (87.7%), adults (98.5%), and urban inhabitants (67.7%). Relevant exposures to risk factors were identified in 45.7% of patients. The most common symptoms of acute Q fever were fever (89.3%), myalgia (67.9%) and asthenia (53.6%). Two cases with endocarditis were identified in chronic Q fever.
This study suggests that Q fever has a low endemicity in Korea. However, management and research at national level is required for prevention of a future epidemic.


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  • Novel genotypes of Coxiella burnetii circulating in rats in Yunnan Province, China
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    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Comparing Treatment Outcomes of Ampicillin-Sulbactam, Other β-Lactams, and Vancomycin in Blood Culture-Negative Infective Endocarditis
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    BMC Infectious Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Seroreactivity to Q Fever Among Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea
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    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2017; 50(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis and Q fever in Korean black goats
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    Chung-Hsu Lai, Lin-Li Chang, Jiun-Nong Lin, Wei-Fang Chen, Yu-Feng Wei, Chien-Tung Chiu, Jiun-Ting Wu, Chi-Kuei Hsu, Jung-Yueh Chen, Ho-Sheng Lee, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Yen-Hsu Chen, Daniel E. Voth
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  • Seroprevalence of Q-fever in Korean native cattle
    Ji-Yeon Kim, So-Ra Sung, Ji-In Pyun, Moon Her, Sung-Il Kang, Hyang-Keun Lee, Suk Chan Jung
    Korean Journal of Veterinary Research.2014; 54(3): 147.     CrossRef
  • Serological characterization of surface-exposed proteins of Coxiella burnetii
    Jun Jiao, Xiaolu Xiong, Yong Qi, Wenping Gong, Changsong Duan, Xiaomei Yang, Bohai Wen
    Microbiology .2014; 160(12): 2718.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives