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Original Article
2019 Tabletop Exercise for Laboratory Diagnosis and Analyses of Unknown Disease Outbreaks by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Il-Hwan Kim, Jun Hyeong Jang, Su-Kyoung Jo, Jin Sun No, Seung-Hee Seo, Jun-Young Kim, Sang-Oun Jung, Jeong-Min Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Hye-Kyung Park, Eun-Jin Kim, Jun Ho Jeon, Myung-Min Choi, Boyeong Ryu, Yoon Suk Jang, Hwami Kim, Jin Lee, Seung-Hwan Shin, Hee Kyoung Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Ye Eun Park, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Sang-Won Lee, Myung-Guk Han, Gi-Eun Rhie, Byung Hak Kang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):280-285.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.03
  • 3,947 View
  • 95 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published “A Guideline for Unknown Disease Outbreaks (UDO).” The aim of this report was to introduce tabletop exercises (TTX) to prepare for UDO in the future.

Methods

The UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April 2018, assigned unknown diseases into 5 syndromes, designed an algorithm for diagnosis, and made a panel list for diagnosis by exclusion. Using the guidelines and laboratory analyses for UDO, TTX were introduced.

Results

Since September 9th, 2018, the UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force has been preparing TTX based on a scenario of an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus. In December 2019, through TTX, individual missions, epidemiological investigations, sample treatments, diagnosis by exclusions, and next generation sequencing analysis were discussed, and a novel coronavirus was identified as the causal pathogen.

Conclusion

Guideline and laboratory analyses for UDO successfully applied in TTX. Conclusions drawn from TTX could be applied effectively in the analyses for the initial response to COVID-19, an ongoing epidemic of 2019 – 2020. Therefore, TTX should continuously be conducted for the response and preparation against UDO.

Articleses
Resistance to Fluoroquinolone by a Combination of Efflux and Target Site Mutations in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Isolated in Korea
Jun-Young Kim, Se-Mi Jeon, Hyungjun Kim, Nara Lim, Mi-Sun Park, Seong-Han Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(4):239-244.   Published online December 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.11.002
  • 1,900 View
  • 16 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) was recently reported as a major diarrheagenic pathogen in infant and adult travelers, both in developing and developed countries. EAEC strains are known to be highly resistant to antibiotics including quinolones. Therefore in this study we have determined the various mechanisms of quinolone resistance in EAEC strains isolated in Korea.
Methods
For 26 EAEC strains highly resistant to fluoroquinolone, minimal inhibitory concentrations for fluoroquinolones were determined, mutations in the quinolone target genes were identified by PCR and sequencing, the presence of transferable quinolone resistance mechanism were identified by PCR, and the contribution of the efflux pump was determined by synergy tests using a proton pump inhibitor. The expression levels of efflux pump-related genes were identified by relative quantification using real-time PCR.
Results
Apart from two, all tested isolates had common mutations on GyrA (Ser83Leu and Ser87Gly) and ParC (Ser80Gln). Isolates EACR24 and EACR39 had mutations that have not been reported previously: Ala81Pro in ParC and Arg157Gly in GyrA, respectively. Increased susceptibility of all the tested isolates to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the presence of the pump inhibitor implies that efflux pumps contributed to the resistance against fluoroquinolones. Expression of the efflux pump-related genes, tolC, mdfA, and ydhE, were induced in isolates EACR 07, EACR 29, and EACR 33 in the presence of ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion
These results indicate that quinolone resistance of EAEC strains mainly results from the combination of mutations in the target enzyme and an increased expression of efflux pump-related genes. The mutations Ala81Pro in ParC and Arg157Gly in GyrA have not been reported previously the exact influence of these mutations should be investigated further.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Detection of gyrA and parC Mutations and Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Israa MS Al-kadmy, Saba S Kazaal, Alaa N Mohammed Ali, Sarah Naji Aziz, Rabab R Makharita, Abdelazeem M Algammal, Salim Al-Rejaie, Tapan Behl, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Helal F Hetta
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2021; Volume 14: 555.     CrossRef
  • Fluoroquinolone-Transition Metal Complexes: A Strategy to Overcome Bacterial Resistance
    Mariana Ferreira, Paula Gameiro
    Microorganisms.2021; 9(7): 1506.     CrossRef
  • Frequency of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutations and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urinary tract infections in Azerbaijan, Iran
    Robab Azargun, Mohammad Hossein Soroush Barhaghi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Mahin Ahangar Oskouee, Vahid Sadeghi, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Reza Ghotaslou
    Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance.2019; 17: 39.     CrossRef
  • Evaluating the efficacy of an algae-based treatment to mitigate elicitation of antibiotic resistance
    Kassandra L. Grimes, Laura J. Dunphy, Erica M. Loudermilk, A. Jasmin Melara, Glynis L. Kolling, Jason A. Papin, Lisa M. Colosi
    Chemosphere.2019; 237: 124421.     CrossRef
  • Resistance mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori and its dual target precise therapy
    Yuehua Gong, Yuan Yuan
    Critical Reviews in Microbiology.2018; 44(3): 371.     CrossRef
  • E. coli Group 1 Capsular Polysaccharide Exportation Nanomachinary as a Plausible Antivirulence Target in the Perspective of Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance
    Shivangi Sachdeva, Raghuvamsi V. Palur, Karpagam U. Sudhakar, Thenmalarchelvi Rathinavelan
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Different Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes Responsible for Complicated, Noncomplicated, and Traveler's Diarrhea Cases
    Silvia Herrera-León, María Teresa Llorente, Sergio Sánchez
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.2016; 60(3): 1950.     CrossRef
  • Determinants of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in Bejaia, Algeria
    Yanat Betitra, Vinuesa Teresa, Viñas Miguel, Touati Abdelaziz
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine.2014; 7(6): 462.     CrossRef
A Contribution of MdfA to Resistance to Fluoroquinolones in Shigella flexneri
Jun-Young Kim, Se-Mi Jeon, Hyungjun Kim, Mi-Sun Park, Seong-Han Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(3):216-217.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.049
  • 1,869 View
  • 16 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
In this study, we measured the drug resistance conferred by mdfA mutations in two Shigella flexneri strains. A mutant in mdfA genes was constructed by polymerase chain reaction–based, one-step inactivation of chromosomal genes. The antimicrobial susceptibility of parent and mutant strains to fluoroquinolones was determined by minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs). The △mdfA mutants were somewhat more susceptible to fluoroquinolones than the parent strains. The low level changes in MICs of the △mdfA mutants suggest that mdfA contributed the fluoroquinolone resistance in S flexneri. This finding found that the increased expression level of an MdfA efflux pump mediated fluoroquinolone resistance, but it is not likely a major effecter of higher resistance levels.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparative genomics analysis of Raoultella planticola S25 isolated from duck in China, with florfenicol resistance
    Yabo Liu, Fei Wu, Qing Chen, Yuanyuan Ying, Yi Jiang, Junwan Lu, Xi Lin, Kewei Li, Teng Xu, Qiyu Bao, Liyan Ni
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectiou.2020; 68: 101398.     CrossRef
  • Efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria in brief
    Ibtesam Ghadban Auda, Istabreq M. Ali Salman, Jameelah Gh. Odah
    Gene Reports.2020; 20: 100666.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Characterization of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain R46 Isolated from a Rabbit
    Fei Wu, Yuanyuan Ying, Min Yin, Yi Jiang, Chongyang Wu, Changrui Qian, Qianqian Chen, Kai Shen, Cong Cheng, Licheng Zhu, Kewei Li, Teng Xu, Qiyu Bao, Junwan Lu
    International Journal of Genomics.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • Emergence of antibiotic resistant Shigella species: A matter of concern
    Minakshi Puzari, Mohan Sharma, Pankaj Chetia
    Journal of Infection and Public Health.2018; 11(4): 451.     CrossRef
  • Update on:Shigellanew serogroups/serotypes and their antimicrobial resistance
    D.P. Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, N.K. Devanga Ragupathi, S. Anandan, B. Veeraraghavan
    Letters in Applied Microbiology.2017; 64(1): 8.     CrossRef
  • The Challenge of Efflux-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria
    Xian-Zhi Li, Patrick Plésiat, Hiroshi Nikaido
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews.2015; 28(2): 337.     CrossRef
  • Anti-Bacillusand Anti-ShigellaActivities of the Essential Oil fromPerilla fruescensvar.japonicaHara
    H. Lim, S. Shin
    Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants.2014; 17(2): 309.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives