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1 "Mohammed S. Ellulu"
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Obesity, Hypertension, and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Interrelationships and the Determinants among Adults in Gaza City, Palestine
Mohammed S. Ellulu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):289-298.   Published online December 31, 2018
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AbstractAbstract PDF

To describe the distribution of social factors, lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements according to hypertension and Type-2 diabetes.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gaza City, Palestine that included 379 patients (20–60 years) who had hypertension and/or diabetes. Three groups of patients were involved; 106 hypertensive (HT), 109 diabetic (T2DM) and 164 hypertensive diabetics (HT + T2DM).


The HT + T2DM group were older and had a higher body mass index compared to HT and T2DM groups. There were 62.3% patients who were female, 49.2% were highly educated HT patients, and 49.3% patients had a low level of education and were HT + T2DM. There were 55.8% patients who lived in large families. Patients who were passive smokers or never smoked before were mostly HT + T2DM, while active smokers and past smokers had T2DM. There were 48.2% patients who were highly physically active who had HT, 40.9% whom were moderately active had T2DM, and 53.8% of patients who had a low level of activity were HT + T2DM. Multivariate linear regression showed that having a diseased mother, living in a large family, being a past or passive smoker, or never having smoked, having a low or moderate level of activity, and having HT or HT + T2DM, were significantly associated with an increased body mass index.


Parental health/disease conditions and environmental factors (social network and lifestyle habits) played the greatest role in the development of obesity and disease.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives