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Brief Report
Follow-up Study of Patients Previously Diagnosed with Lymphatic Filariasis in Korea
Hyeng Il Cheun, Hee Eun Shin, Da Won Ma, Sung Hee Hong, Tae Yun Kim, Sang Eun Lee, JungWon Ju, Yun-Kyu Park, Tong-Soo Kim, Shin Hyeong Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(6):421-424.   Published online December 31, 2017
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  • 27 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Korea was an endemic area for lymphatic filariasis (LF), caused by the nematode parasite Brugia malayi, until the 1970s. The World Health Organization recognized Korea as LF-free in June 2008. However, it is necessary to confirm that patients that have had LF in the past still test negative, to prevent the re-emergence of LF in Korea.


We followed up a total of 83 patients who had been diagnosed with LF between 2002 and 2010 in endemic LF areas.


Fifty-two of the 83 subjects were negative for LF, whereas 31 subjects had re-located to a different city or province, were dead, or were unaccounted for. Most subjects with negative test results still exhibited edema in the legs or the arms, and some complained of redness and swelling in the legs or ankle joints. However, we found that these symptoms were due to diseases other than LF.


In this follow-up study, we did not find any evidence indicating the potential re-emergence of LF in Korea.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Lymphatic filariasis in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Negar Bizhani, Saeideh Hashemi Hafshejani, Neda Mohammadi, Mehdi Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher Rokni
    Parasitology Research.2021; 120(2): 411.     CrossRef
  • Status of common parasitic diseases in Korea in 2019
    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2019; 62(8): 437.     CrossRef
Original Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Clonorchiasis among the Populations Served by Primary Healthcare Posts along Five Major Rivers in South Korea
Kyung Ja June, Shin Hyeong Cho, Won Ja Lee, Chunmi Kim, Kyung-Soon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):21-26.   Published online February 28, 2013
  • 3,039 View
  • 18 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Clonorchiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of clonorchiasis among the populations served by primary healthcare posts along five major rivers in South Korea.
Forty primary healthcare posts that are located less than 5 km from one of the five rivers were selected from 26 counties. For the purpose of the survey, community health practitioners selected the nearest villages from the riversides in their own catchment area. From January to May 2009, a total of 2788 stool samples were collected and examined using the formalin–ether sedimentation technique. Village inhabitants were also interviewed by means of questionnaires in order to obtain information on potential risk factors.
The prevalence rates of clonorchiasis at various river basins were as follows: Seomjin River, 21.3%; Nakdong River, 13.5%; Geum River, 9.2%; Han River, 7.6%; and Yeongsan River, 4.9%. The total number of people infected with C. sinensis was 329 (11.3%). By gender, 14.3% of males and 7.6% of females were infected. In case of both males and females, the prevalence rate was highest in those in their 40s. Consumption of raw freshwater fish was confirmed as a risk factor based on a logistic regression analysis.
The present findings suggest that clonorchiasis is still highly prevalent among the inhabitants of riverside areas in southern Korea, and, accordingly, it is necessary to implement a systematic control program in the endemic areas.


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  • The spatial-temporal risk profiling of Clonorchis sinensis infection over 50 years implies the effectiveness of control programs in South Korea: a geostatistical modeling study
    Hai-Yan Xiao, Jong-Yil Chai, Yue-Yi Fang, Ying-Si Lai
    The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific.2023; 33: 100697.     CrossRef
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  • Infection Characteristics of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Fish from Republic of Korea
    Woon-Mok Sohn
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2022; 60(2): 79.     CrossRef
  • Survey of Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Water Systems of Geum-gang (River) in Republic of Korea
    Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Min-Ah Hwang, Kyeong-Woo No, Jai-Dong Kim
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2021; 59(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for Clonorchis sinensis Infection in Residents of Binyang, Guangxi: A Cross-Sectional and Logistic Analysis Study
    Meng Xu, Yanyan Jiang, Jianhai Yin, Shengkui Cao, Yujuan Shen, Jianping Cao
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • High Endemicity with Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Fish from Yongjeon-cheon (Stream) in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea
    Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Hee Il Lee, Myoung-Ro Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Gou Ok Kim
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2021; 59(1): 97.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Infection Intensity of Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Soyang-cheon (Stream), in Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
    Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Jung-Won Ju, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Min-Ah Hwang, Kyeong-Woo No, Jong-Ho Park
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2021; 59(3): 265.     CrossRef
  • Survey of Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Irrigation Canal of Togyo-jeosuji (Reservoir) in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
    Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Hee Il Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Myoung-Ro Lee, Eun-Joo Lim, Sung Yong Son, Eunmi Ko, Jaeseok Choi
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2021; 59(4): 427.     CrossRef
  • Endemicity of Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Deokcheon-gang (River) in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea
    Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Hee Il Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Myoung-Ro Lee, Jeong-Gil Park, Jihee Ahn
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2021; 59(5): 523.     CrossRef
  • Surveillance of clonorchiasis in China in 2016
    Ting-Jun Zhu, Ying-Dan Chen, Men-Bao Qian, Hui-Hui Zhu, Ji-Lei Huang, Chang-Hai Zhou, Xiao-Nong Zhou
    Acta Tropica.2020; 203: 105320.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors of Clonorchis sinensis Human Infections in Endemic Areas, Haman-Gun, Republic of Korea: A Case-Control Study
    Sang-Eun Lee, Hee-Eun Shin, Myoung-Ro Lee, Yang-Hee Kim, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Jung-Won Ju
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2020; 58(6): 647.     CrossRef
  • Risk mapping of clonorchiasis in the People’s Republic of China: A systematic review and Bayesian geostatistical analysis
    Ying-Si Lai, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Zhi-Heng Pan, Jürg Utzinger, Penelope Vounatsou, Darren J. Gray
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2017; 11(3): e0005239.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological and Clinical Parameters Features of Patients with Clonorchiasis in the Geum River Basin, Republic of Korea
    Hee-Eun Shin, Myoung-Ro Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Byong-Suk Jeong, Mi-Yeoun Park, Keoung-Sook Lee, Shin-Hyeong Cho
    Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Disea.2017; 2017: 1.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors for Clonorchis sinensis infection transmission in humans in northern Vietnam: A descriptive and social network analysis study
    Hoang Quang Vinh, Waraphon Phimpraphai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, John F. Smith, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Do Trung Dung, Tran Thanh Duong, Banchob Sripa
    Parasitology International.2017; 66(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Related Factors of Clonorchiasis among Five Major Riverside Residents in South Korea
    Chunmi Kim, Kyung Ja June, Shin Hyeong Cho, Kyung Soon Park, Hung Sa Lee, Ji Yeon Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nurs.2016; 27(4): 346.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Clonorchiasis among Residents of Riverside Areas in Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
    Do-Soon Park, Sung-Jin Na, Shin Hyeong Cho, Kyung Ja June, Young-Chae Cho, Young-Ha Lee
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2014; 52(4): 391.     CrossRef
  • Effects of a Clonorchiasis Prevention Education Program for Clonorchiasis Prevention Lecturers
    Chunmi Kim, Kyung-Ja June, Aeyoung So
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nurs.2013; 24(4): 398.     CrossRef
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Korea Estimated with a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Seungyoung Oh, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Shin Hyeong Cho, Won Ja Lee, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(4):192-198.   Published online December 31, 2012
  • 3,661 View
  • 24 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The spatial and temporal correlations were estimated to determine Plasmodium vivax malarial transmission pattern in Korea from 2001–2011 with the hierarchical generalized linear model.
Malaria cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the incidence was estimated according to age, sex, and year by the hierarchical generalized linear model. Spatial and temporal correlation was estimated and the best model was selected from nine models. Results were presented as diseases map according to age and sex.
The incidence according to age was highest in the 20–25-year-old group (244.52 infections/100,000). Mean ages of infected males and females were 31.0 years and 45.3 years with incidences 7.8 infections/100,000 and 7.1 infections/100,000 after estimation. The mean month for infection was mid-July with incidence 10.4 infections/100,000. The best-fit model showed that there was a spatial and temporal correlation in the malarial transmission. Incidence was very low or negligible in areas distant from the demilitarized zone between Republic of Korea and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) if the 20–29-year-old male group was omitted in the diseases map.
Malarial transmission in a region in Korea was influenced by the incidence in adjacent regions in recent years. Since malaria in Korea mainly originates from mosquitoes from North Korea, there will be continuous decrease if there is no further outbreak in North Korea.


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    Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sus.2022; 40(3): 360.     CrossRef
  • Spatial connectivity in mosquito-borne disease models: a systematic review of methods and assumptions
    Sophie A. Lee, Christopher I. Jarvis, W. John Edmunds, Theodoros Economou, Rachel Lowe
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface.2021; 18(178): 20210096.     CrossRef
  • Effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission dynamics: A mathematical modeling approach
    Jung Eun Kim, Yongin Choi, Chang Hyeong Lee
    Applied Mathematics and Computation.2019; 347: 616.     CrossRef
  • Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea
    Sehyeong Kim, Youngho Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(7): 1250.     CrossRef
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    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2018; 61(3): 198.     CrossRef
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    Zhujie Chu, Wenna Wang, Bairong Wang, Jun Zhuang
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  • Chemotherapeutic drugs for common parasitic diseases in Korea
    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(6): 513.     CrossRef
  • Are There Spatial and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence Distribution of Scrub Typhus in Korea?
    Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Sun Huh
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(1): 39.     CrossRef
  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
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Surveillance and Vector Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea
Shin Hyeong Cho, Da Won Ma, Bo Ra Koo, Hee Eun Shin, Wook Kyo Lee, Byong Suk Jeong, Chaeshin Chu, Won Ja Lee, Hyeng Il Cheun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):145-150.   Published online June 30, 2012
  • 3,110 View
  • 15 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Until the early 2000s, lymphatic filariasis would commonly break out in the coastal areas in Korea. Through steady efforts combining investigation and treatment, filariasis was officially declared eradicated in 2008. This study surveyed the density of vector species of filariasis in past endemic areas, and inspected filariasis DNA from collected mosquitoes for protection against the reemergence of filariasis.
Between May and October 2009, mosquitoes were caught using the black night trap in past endemic coastal areas: Gyeongsangnam-do, Jeollanamdo, and Jeju-do. The collected mosquitoes were identified, and the extracted DNA from the collected vector mosquitoes was tested by polymerase chain reaction for Brugia malayi filariasis.
Ochletotatus togoi, Anophel es (Hyrcanus) group and Culex pipiens were most frequently caught in Jeollanam-do (Geomun Island, Bogil Island, Heuksan Island), Jeju-do (Namone-ri, Wimi-ri). and Gyeongsangnam-do (Maemul Island). DNA of B malayi was not found in Och Togoi and An (Hyrcanus) group as main vectors of filariasis.
Lymphatic filariasis was not found in the vector mosquitoes collected in past endemic areas. However, considering that the proportion of vector species is quite high, there is a potential risk that filariasis could be reemerging through overseas travel or trade. Thus, there is a need to continuously monitor vector mosquitoes of lymphatic filariasis.


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    Young Yil Bahk, Eun-Hee Shin, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Jung-Won Ju, Jong-Yil Chai, Tong-Soo Kim
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives