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Original Articles
Transmission parameters of coronavirus disease 2019 in South Asian countries
Mridul Sannyal, Abul Mukid Mohammad Mukaddes
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):191-202.   Published online June 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0234
  • 1,638 View
  • 39 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to estimate the transmission parameters, effective reproduction number, epidemic peak, and future exposure of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Asian countries. Methods: A susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered-death (SEIRD) model programmed with MATLAB was developed for this purpose. Data were collected (till June 28, 2021) from the official webpage of World Health Organization, along with the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. The model was simulated to measure the primary transmission parameters. The reproduction number was measured using the next-generating matrix method. Results: The primary transmission rate followed an exponential Gaussian process regression. India showed the highest transmission rate (0.037) and Bhutan the lowest (0.023). The simulated epidemic peaks matched the reported peaks, thereby validating the SEIRD model. The simulation was carried out up to December 31, 2020 using the reported data till June 9, 2020. Conclusion: The information gathered in this research will be helpful for authorities to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in the subsequent wave or in the future.
Risk of Water and Food-Borne Communicable Diseases in Travelers Entering Korea
Kyung Sook Jung, Yu Mi Jang, Ji Hye Hwang, Gi Jun Park, Tae Jong Son
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(4):215-220.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.03
  • 10,050 View
  • 164 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

It was supposed to analyze status and affecting factors in water and food-borne communicable disease by screening entrants with diarrhea symptom at the point of entry in Korea

Methods

Symptomatic travelers with water and food-borne communicable diseases who entered Korea were diagnosed by a health declaration and detection of causative agents in water and food using laboratory tests. Among those entered in 2017, the affecting factors in the incidence of communicable diseases among those who had diarrhea at the entry into Korea, were analyzed, with frequency and chi-square test.

Results

The number of travel entrants with gastrointestinal communicable diseases increased by 40.19% from 2013 to 2017. The percentage of causative agents of water and food-borne communicable diseases was the highest at 69.2% from July to September. The rate of detection of causative agents of communicable disease pathogens in travelers from Southeast Asia entering Korea was 70.2%, which was higher than people arriving from East Asia and Central Asia (57.5%; p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The positive ratio of causative agents of water and food-borne communicable diseases was high among travelers that had entered Korea from July to September, with a high number among entrants from Southeast Asia. Based on the positive detection of causative agents, the entry period and countries visited were statistically significant affecting factors (p < 0.001).

Epidemiology and Inequality in the Incidence and Mortality of Nasopharynx Cancer in Asia
Neda Mahdavifar, Mahshid Ghoncheh, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Bahman Khosravi, Hamid Salehiniya
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(6):360-372.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.11.002
  • 2,641 View
  • 19 Download
  • 37 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
One of the most common head and neck cancers is nasopharynx cancer. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study and better planning. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012.
Methods
The aim of this ecologic study was to assess the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its components, which include the following: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used the correlation bivariate method for the assessment. Statistical significance was assumed if p < 0.05. All reported p values are two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.).
Results
A total of 68,272 cases (males, 71.02%; females, 28.97%; sex ratio, 2.45) and 40,530 mortalities (males, 71.63%; females, 28.36%; sex ratio, 2.52) were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The five countries with the highest ASIR of nasopharynx cancer were Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brunei, and the five countries with the highest ASMR were Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei. The correlation between HDI and ASIR was 0.097 (p = 0.520) [0.105 in men (p = 0.488) and 0.119 in women (p = 0.901)]. The correlation between HDI and ASMR was –0.102 (p = 0.502) [–0.072 in men (p = 0.633) and –0.224 in women (p = 0.134)].
Conclusion
Nasopharynx cancer is native to Southeast Asia. The highest incidence and mortality rates are found in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brunei. No significant relation was found between the standardized incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and the HDI components. Further studies are recommended in Southeast Asian countries in order to find the etiology of cancer, as well as its diagnosis and treatment.

Citations

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Obesity and Asian Americans in the United States: Systematic Literature Review
Sanggon Nam
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):187-193.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.001
  • 2,030 View
  • 18 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in the world today. Asian Americans are usually less overweight and obese than African Americans and Hispanic Americans, but the rate of obesity in Asian Americans is still increasing, especially in younger generations. This research examines Asian American obesity using existing research, as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research.
Methods
In this research literature review, Asian American obesity using existing research as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research is examined. A systematic review is done in order to find Asian American obesity research, due to the minimal amount of existing studies. In total, there were only nine papers which were not duplicates and which still met the criteria for inclusion, from an initial 106 papers.
Results
There is very little research on obesity in Asian Americans. Although the rate of obesity among Asian Americans is increasing, there are few related articles, projects, and surveys, and there is little information. There is a need for more specific and in-depth analysis of Asian American obesity. Asian Americans are associated with a lower waist circumference (WC) and BMI, while Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders are associated with a higher WC and BMI. Typically, Asian Americans who were born in the United States (US) tend to be overweight and more obese than those born in foreign countries.
Conclusion
Based on this literature review, it is concluded that there is a shortage of Asian American obesity research, even though there is an evident need for particular obesity intervention programs that target Asian Americans.

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Brief Report
Epidemiological Characteristics of Imported Shigellosis in Korea, 2010–2011
Hee-Jung Kim, Seung-Ki Youn, Sangwon Lee, Yeon Hwa Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):159-165.   Published online June 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.02.002
  • 2,259 View
  • 17 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Shigellosis is a global disease as food poisoning by infection of Shigella spp (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei). In Korea, approximately 500 cases of shigellosis have reported every year since 2004, and imported shigellosis is increasing gradually from 2006 in particular. According to increase of numbers of overseas travelers, the numbers of patients diseased with imported shigellosis is also increasing. We need continuous surveillance studies network (SSN) for control of imported shigellosis. We studied epidemiological characteristic of imported shigellosis by using database of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from 2010 to 2011. The imported shigellosis is analyzed on correlation with variable factors such as sex, age, symptom, visited country as well as Shigella spp in the database. Total 399 patients diseased with shigellosis have been reported between 2010 and 2011, The 212 patients (53.1%) among them were disease with imported shigellosis and the 205 patients (96.7%) were diagnosed as definite shigellosis. Shigella sonnei (65.6%) and Shigella flexneri (20.3%) were isolated in order. Clinical symptoms of the shigellosis were diarrhea (96.5%), abdominal pain (54.7%), fever (52.8%), chill (31.6%), and weakness (21.7% etc) in order. Duration of diarrhea was 1 to 5 days, the number of diarrhea was mostly more than 10 times, and type of stool was almost yellow stool. Almost shigellosis was occurred in the travelers visited to Asia (98.1%). Particularly, the occurrence rate of shigellosis was highest in traveler visited to Southeast Asia which is India (21.7%), Cambodia (19.8%), Philippines (17.9%), and Vietnam (9.0%) in order. According to increase of traveler to Southeast Asia, imported Shigellosis also increased. We need to strengthen the public health and hygiene, which is infection prevention rules, eating properly-cook food, washing hands, drinking boiled water, for traveler to Asia. The quarantine and surveillance system to control imported shigellosis is need continually in Korea.

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Articles
Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis A Infection in Northeastern China, Korea, and Japan
Haesun Yun, Hyeok-Jin Lee, Youngsil Yoon, Kisang Kim, Sungsoo Kim, Myung-Hee Shin, Miyuki Taniguchi, Soo Ryang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):31-35.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.005
  • 1,959 View
  • 13 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The epidemiological patterns of endemic hepatitis A virus (HAV) are unclear in northeastern Asia depending on the ethnicity of the country in question. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV in northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan.
Methods
A total of 1,500 serum samples were collected from five groups of inhabitants (300 each) who were over 40 years of age (Korean Chinese, indigenous Chinese, South Korean, Korean living in Japan, and indigenous Japanese). The samples were screened for antibodies to HAV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Positivity for HAV antibodies was 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.9–96.4) in Koreans living in northeastern China, 99.7% (95% CI: 99.0–100.3) in indigenous Chinese, 98.0% (95% CI: 96.4–99.6) in indigenous Koreans, 33.3% (95% CI: 28.0–38.7) in Koreans living in Japan, and 20.4% (95% CI: 15.8–25.0) in indigenous Japanese persons. The overall anti-HAV prevalence was not significantly different between northeastern China and South Korea, but it was different in Japan.
Conclusions
These results indicate that differences in seroprevalence can be attributed to geological, environmental, and socioeconomic conditions rather than ethnicity.

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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives