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Original Articles
The Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Exposure to Aflatoxin M1 in Ultra-High Temperature and Pasteurized Milk in Hamadan Province of Iran
Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Ali Heshmati, Tayebe Ghiasvand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(4):228-233.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.05
  • 4,740 View
  • 130 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Aflatoxins are a category of poisonous compounds found in most plants, milk and dairy products. The present research was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in samples of milk collected from Hamadan province, Iran.

Methods

Twenty five samples of ultra-high temperature (UHT) and 63 samples of pasteurized milk were collected and the amount of AFM1 was measured by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard index (HI) of AFM1 was determined by the following equations:(EDI= mean concentration of AFM1 × daily consumption of milk/body weight; HI= EDI/Tolerance Daily Intake).

Results

AFM1 was detected in 21 (84%) UHT milk samples and in 55 (87.30%) pasteurized milk samples. Seven (28%) samples of UHT and 21 (33.33%) pasteurized milk samples had higher AFM1 content than the limit allowed in the European Union and Iranian National Standard Limits (0.05 μg/kg). None of the samples exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration limit (0.5 μg/kg) for AFM1. EDI and HI for AM1 through milk were 0.107 ng/kg body weight/day, and 0.535, respectively.

Conclusion

A significant percentage of milk produced by different factories in Iran (84% of UHT and 87.3% of pasteurized milk) was contaminated with AFM1. Therefore, more control and monitoring of livestock feeding in dairy companies may help reduce milk contamination with AFM1. As the HI value was lower than 1, it can be assumed that there was no risk of developing liver cancer due to milk consumption.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products: global occurrence and potential decontamination strategies
    Khurram Muaz, Muhammad Riaz, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, Saeed Akhtar, Shinawar Waseem Ali, Habibullah Nadeem, Sungkwon Park, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian
    Toxin Reviews.2022; 41(2): 588.     CrossRef
  • Feed to fork risk assessment of mycotoxins under climate change influences - recent developments
    Rhea Sanjiv Chhaya, John O'Brien, Enda Cummins
    Trends in Food Science & Technology.2022; 126: 126.     CrossRef
  • The behavior of aflatoxin M1 during lactic cheese production and storage
    Mahtab Einolghozati, Ali Heshmati, Freshteh Mehri
    Toxin Reviews.2022; 41(4): 1163.     CrossRef
  • Exposure assessment on aflatoxin M1 from milk and dairy products-relation to public health
    Eleni Malissiova, Georgia Soultani, Konstantina Tsokana, Mary Alexandraki, Athanasios Manouras
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2022; 47: 189.     CrossRef
  • Aflatoxin M1 in distributed milks in northwestern Iran: occurrence, seasonal variation, and risk assessment
    Seyyed Ahmad Mokhtari, Ali Nemati, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Eslam Moradi-Asl, Vahid Taefi Ardabili, Anoshirvan Seddigh
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2022; 29(27): 41429.     CrossRef
  • Brucellosis in Humans with the Approach of Brucella Species Contamination in Unpasteurized Milk and Dairy Products from Hamadan, Iran
    Mohammad Mahdi Majzobi, Pejman Karami, Amir Khodavirdipour, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
    Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology.2022; 16(4): 282.     CrossRef
  • Review, meta-analysis and carcinogenic risk assessment of aflatoxin M1 in different types of milks in Iran
    Fatemeh Mortezazadeh, Fathollah Gholami-Borujeni
    Reviews on Environmental Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Probabilistic modeling and risk characterization of the chronic aflatoxin M1 exposure of Hungarian consumers
    Zsuzsa Farkas, Kata Kerekes, Árpád Ambrus, Miklós Süth, Ferenc Peles, Tünde Pusztahelyi, István Pócsi, Attila Nagy, Péter Sipos, Gabriella Miklós, Anna Lőrincz, Szilveszter Csorba, Ákos Bernard Jóźwiak
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in doogh, kefir, and kashk in Hamadan, Iran
    Mina KHORSHIDI, Ali HESHMATI, Zahra HADIAN, Slim SMAOUI, Amin MOUSAVI KHANEGHAH
    Food Science and Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characterization and mechanism of aflatoxin degradation by a novel strain of Trichoderma reesei CGMCC3.5218
    Xiaofeng Yue, Xianfeng Ren, Jiayun Fu, Na Wei, Claudio Altomare, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio F. Logrieco, Qi Zhang, Peiwu Li
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Simultaneous multi-determination of pesticide residues in black tea leaves and infusion: a risk assessment study
    Ali Heshmati, Fereshteh Mehri, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2021; 28(11): 13725.     CrossRef
  • Development of a specific anti-idiotypic nanobody for monitoring aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products
    Chong Cai, Qi Zhang, Seyni Nidiaye, Honglin Yan, Wen Zhang, Xiaoqian Tang, Peiwu Li
    Microchemical Journal.2021; 167: 106326.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk marketed in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    F. Mwakosya Hilda, K. Mugula Jovin
    African Journal of Microbiology Research.2021; 15(9): 461.     CrossRef
  • Multi-mycotoxin occurrence in feed, metabolism and carry-over to animal-derived food products: A review
    J. Tolosa, Y. Rodríguez-Carrasco, M.J. Ruiz, P. Vila-Donat
    Food and Chemical Toxicology.2021; 158: 112661.     CrossRef
  • Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Commercial Milk in Paraguay
    ANDREA ALEJANDRA ARRUA, PABLO DAVID ARRÚA, JULIANA MOURA-MENDES, CINTHIA CAZAL, FRANCISCO PAULO FERREIRA, CRISTHIAN JAVIER GRABOWSKI, HORACIO DANIEL LOPEZ-NICORA, DANILO FERNÁNDEZ RIOS
    Journal of Food Protection.2021; 84(12): 2128.     CrossRef
  • The Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 in Yoghurt Samples from Hamadan, Iran
    Ali Heshmati, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Mozaffari Nejad, Tayebeh Ghyasvand
    The Open Public Health Journal.2020; 13(1): 512.     CrossRef
Seroprevalence of Toxocara in Children from Urban and Rural Areas of Ilam Province, West Iran
Sahar Shokouhi, Jahangir Abdi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(3):101-104.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.3.03
  • 9,782 View
  • 96 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara in children ≤ 10 years old, from rural and urban areas of Ilam.

Methods

Serum samples from 383 children ≤ 10 years old, were selected randomly from rural and urban areas of Ilam province and surveyed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results

The total rate of infection with Toxocara was 22% (31% with a history of contact with dogs and cats, and 14% without a history of contact). Of those infected, 23% were male and 18% were female, 36% lived a rural life and 20% had an urban life. A significant correlation was found between the incidence of disease, and urban and rural life, as well as exposure to dogs and cats. There was no correlation between prevalence and gender or age.

Conclusion

Given the high prevalence of infection with Toxocara amongst children in Ilam province, preventive work in the community such as education in risk management and periodic treatment with anti-parasitic drugs and elimination of stray dogs and cats is an appropriate measure.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxocara canis infection in children aged 2–15 years from the southwest Iran
    Masoud Foroutan, Shahrzad Soltani, Samaneh Bahadoram, Fatemeh Maghsoudi, Naser Kamyari, Shekoufe Haddadi
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectiou.2022; 85: 101801.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of Toxocara spp. in children (3–13 years old) in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran
    Alireza Salimi Khorashad, Majid Shahraki, Mansour Rahmati Balaghaleh, Samaneh Abdolahi Khabisi, Sangeetha Rala, Reza Shafiei, Hadi Mirahmadi
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases.2021; 45(2): 449.     CrossRef
  • The global prevalence of Toxocara spp. in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Behnam Abedi, Mehran Akbari, Sahar KhodaShenas, Alireza Tabibzadeh, Ali Abedi, Reza Ghasemikhah, Marzieh Soheili, Shnoo Bayazidi, Yousef Moradi
    Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2021; 64(11): 575.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of toxocariasis among nomads in Boyer-Ahmad County, southwest Iran
    Nasir Arefkhah, Mohammad Reza Shadzi, Fattaneh Mikaeili, Bahador Sarkari, Farideh Esfandiari, Fatemeh Goudarzi
    Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medi.2020; 114(5): 372.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara antibody among multiple sclerosis patients: a case–control study
    Nastaran Khalili, Neda Khalili, Ali Nickhah, Bahman Khalili
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases.2020; 44(1): 145.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of toxocariasis and its related risk factors among municipal street sweepers in Shiraz District in Fars Province, southern Iran
    Amirhossein Erfani, Ali Pouryousef, Nasir Arefkhah, Reza Shahriarirad, Mohammad Rastegarian, Ali Zeighami, Fattaneh Mikaeili, Seyed Younes Hosseini, Bahador Sarkari
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.2020; 8(2): 643.     CrossRef
  • Toxocara infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary school children in central China
    Shuai Wang, Haoran Li, Zhijun Yao, Pengju Li, Dong Wang, Haizhu Zhang, Qing Xie, Zhenchao Zhang, Xiangrui Li
    Parasite.2020; 27: 30.     CrossRef
  • Status of human toxocariasis, a neglected parasitic zoonosis in Iran: a systematic review from past to current
    Reza Shafiei, Mohammad T Rahimi, Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Mehdi Mirzaei, Gregorio Perez-Cordon, Ehsan Ahmadpour
    Tropical Doctor.2020; 50(4): 285.     CrossRef
Factors Associated with Cesarean Section in Tehran, Iran using Multilevel Logistic Regression Model
Payam Amini, Maryam Mohammadi, Reza Omani-Samani, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Saman Maroufizadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):86-92.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.08
  • 3,774 View
  • 58 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Over the past few decades, the prevalence of cesarean sections (CS) have risen dramatically worldwide, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CS in Tehran, and to examine the associated risk factors.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 4,308 pregnant women with singleton live-births in Tehran, Iran, between July 6–21, 2015 was performed. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using demographic and obstetrical variables at the first level, and hospitals as a variable at the second level.

Results

The incidence of CS was 72.0%. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between CS and the mother’s age, socioeconomic status, body mass index, parity, type of pregnancy, preeclampsia, infant height, and baby’s head circumference. The intra-class correlation using the second level variable, the hospital was 0.292, indicating approximately 29.2% of the total variation in the response variable accounted for by the hospital.

Conclusion

The incidence of CS was substantially higher than other countries. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary to reduce CS rates amongst pregnant Iranian women.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The double burden of maternal overweight and short stature and the likelihood of cesarean deliveries in South Asia: An analysis of national datasets from Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan
    Mosiur Rahman, Syed Emdadul Haque, Md. Jahirul Islam, Nguyen Huu Chau, Izzeldin Fadl Adam, Md. Nuruzzaman Haque
    Birth.2022; 49(4): 661.     CrossRef
  • Geospatial analysis of cesarean section in Iran (2016–2020): exploring clustered patterns and measuring spatial interactions of available health services
    Alireza Mohammadi, Elahe Pishgar, Zahra Salari, Behzad Kiani
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with cesarean delivery in Bangladesh: A multilevel modeling
    Md. Akhtarul Islam, Mst. Tanmin Nahar, Md. Ashfikur Rahman, Sutapa Dey Barna, S.M. Farhad Ibn Anik
    Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare.2022; 34: 100792.     CrossRef
  • The Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised Indicator (BSS-RI): a validation study in Iranian mothers
    Reza Omani-Samani, Caroline J. Hollins Martin, Colin R. Martin, Saman Maroufizadeh, Azadeh Ghaheri, Behnaz Navid
    The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine.2021; 34(11): 1827.     CrossRef
  • The effect of familiarization with preoperative care on anxiety and vital signs in the patient’s cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial
    Mehrnush Mostafayi, Behzad Imani, Shirdel Zandi, Faeze Jongi
    European Journal of Midwifery.2021; 5(June): 1.     CrossRef
  • Dynamic prediction of liver cirrhosis risk in chronic hepatitis B patients using longitudinal clinical data
    Ying Wang, Xiang-Yong Li, Li-Li Wu, Xiao-Yan Zheng, Yu Deng, Meng-Jie Li, Xu You, Yu-Tian Chong, Yuan-Tao Hao
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.2020; 32(1): 120.     CrossRef
  • Factors Contributing to Iranian Pregnant Women’s Tendency to Choice Cesarean Section
    Soraya Nouraei Motlagh, Zahra Asadi-piri, Razyeh Bajoulvand, Fatemeh Seyed Mohseni, Katayoun Bakhtiar, Mehdi Birjandi, Maryam Mansouri
    Medical - Surgical Nursing Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends and correlates of cesarean section rates over two decades in Nepal
    Aliza K. C. Bhandari, Bibha Dhungel, Mahbubur Rahman
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Symptoms of Discomfort and Problems Associated with Mode of Delivery During the Puerperium: An Observational Study
    Martínez-Galiano, Delgado-Rodríguez, Rodríguez-Almagro, Hernández-Martínez
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(22): 4564.     CrossRef
Profiling of Virulence-associated Factors in Shigella Species Isolated from Acute Pediatric Diarrheal Samples in Tehran, Iran
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):220-226.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.09
  • 2,989 View
  • 56 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.

Methods

Shigella spp. were isolated and identified using standard microbiological and serological methods. The virulence genes were detected using MPCR.

Results

Seventy-five Shigella spp. (40 S. sonnei, 33 S. flexneri, 1 S. dysenteriae, and 1 S. boydii) were isolated in this study. The prevalence of ial, sen, sat, set1A, and set1B was 74.7%, 45.4%, 28%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. All S. flexneri isolates, while no S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, or S. boydii isolates, contained sat, set1A, and set1B. All isolates were positive for ipaH, ipaBCD, and virA, while one (1.4%) of the isolates contained stx. The highest prevalence of virulence determinants was found in S. flexneri serotype IIa. Nineteen (57.6%) of 33 S. flexneri isolates were positive for ipaBCD, ipaH, virA, ial, and sat. The sen determinants were found to be statistically significantly associated with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea (p = 0.001).

Conclusion

This study revealed a high prevalence of enterotoxin genes in S. flexneri, especially in serotype 2a, and has presented relations between a few clinical features of shigellosis and numerous virulence determinants of clinical isolates of Shigella spp.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Distribution of genes encoding virulence factors of Shigella strains isolated from children with diarrhea in southwest Iran
    Nabi Jomehzadeh, Khadijah Ahmadi, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Maryam Afzali
    Molecular Biology Reports.2021; 48(2): 1645.     CrossRef
  • Evaluate the distribution of virulence genes and to investigate antibiotic resistance pattern among Shigella species isolated from children with shigellosis in Iran
    Samane Mohebi, Hossein Hosseini Nave, Kasra Javadi, Ali Amanati, Soudeh Kholdi, Mahtab Hadadi, Zahra Hashemizadeh, Mohammad Motamedifar
    Gene Reports.2021; 23: 101189.     CrossRef
  • Burden, Antibiotic Resistance, and Clonality of Shigella spp. Implicated in Community-Acquired Acute Diarrhoea in Lilongwe, Malawi
    Abel F.N.D. Phiri, Akebe Luther King Abia, Daniel Gyamfi Amoako, Rajab Mkakosya, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, Sabiha Y. Essack, Gunnar Skov Simonsen
    Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.2021; 6(2): 63.     CrossRef
  • Frequency and Antimicrobial Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran During 2000-2020
    Farhad Moradi, Nahal Hadi, Maryam Akbari, Zahra Hashemizadeh, Reyhaneh Rouhi Jahromi
    Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Virulence factors and molecular characteristics of Shigella flexneri isolated from calves with diarrhea
    Zhen Zhu, Weiwei Wang, Mingze Cao, Qiqi Zhu, Tenghe Ma, Yongying Zhang, Guanhui Liu, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Yuxiang Shi, Jiyu Zhang
    BMC Microbiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Development of quinolone resistance and prevalence of different virulence genes among Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae in environmental water samples
    B. Roy, S.K. Tousif Ahamed, B. Bandyopadhyay, N. Giri
    Letters in Applied Microbiology.2020; 71(1): 86.     CrossRef
  • High Rates of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Gene Distribution Among Shigella spp. Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran


    Mohammadmahdi Karimi-Yazdi, Zohreh Ghalavand, Mahdi Shabani, Hamidreza Houri, Mehrzad Sadredinamin, Marzieh Taheri, Gita Eslami
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2020; Volume 13: 485.     CrossRef
  • Molecular characterization of Shigella species isolated from diarrheal patients in Tehran, Iran: phylogenetic typing and its association with virulence gene profiles and a novel description of Shigella invasion associated locus
    Sina Arabshahi, Aytak Novinrooz, Reza Ranjbar, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infect.2020; 39(9): 1727.     CrossRef
  • Case report on a swift shift in uropathogens from Shigella flexneri to Escherichia coli: a thin line between bacterial persistence and reinfection
    Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Djike Puepi Yolande Fokam, Youmbi Sylvain Kouanou, Henry Dilonga Meriki
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Virulence-related genes are associated with clinical and nutritional outcomes of Shigella/Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli pathotype infection in children from Brazilian semiarid region: A community case-control study
    Mariana Bona, Pedro Henrique Medeiros, Ana Karolina Santos, Thiago Freitas, Mara Prata, Herlice Veras, Marília Amaral, Daniel Oliveira, Alexandre Havt, Aldo Ângelo Lima
    International Journal of Medical Microbiology.2019; 309(2): 151.     CrossRef
  • Genotyping and diversity of virulence genes among Shigella sonnei isolated from children with diarrhoea
    Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani
    Reviews in Medical Microbiology.2019; 30(4): 217.     CrossRef
  • Virulence gene profiles of Shigella species isolated from stool specimens in India: its association with clinical manifestation and antimicrobial resistance
    Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Shalini Anandan, Joy Sarojini Michael, Dhivya Murugan, Ayyanraj Neeravi, Valsan Philip Verghese, Kamini Walia, Balaji Veeraraghavan
    Pathogens and Global Health.2019; 113(4): 173.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of enterotoxin-encoding genes among diverse Shigella strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, southwest Iran
    Mojtaba Moosavian, Sakineh Seyed-Mohammadi, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Saeed Khoshnood, Aram Asarehzadegan Dezfuli, Morteza Saki, Gholamreza Ghaderian, Fatemeh Shahi, Mahtab Abdi, Fariba Abbasi
    Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica.2018; 66(1): 91.     CrossRef
  • Frequency of Mutations in Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Shigella Isolates Recovered from Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran: An Overlooked Problem
    Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
    Microbial Drug Resistance.2018; 24(6): 699.     CrossRef
Factors Influencing Animal Bites in Iran: A Descriptive Study
Rouhullah Dehghani, Alireza Sharif, Mahla Madani, Hamed H. Kashani, Mohammad R. Sharif
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):273-277.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.06.004
  • 2,007 View
  • 17 Download
  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Animal bite is a significant health economic challenge worldwide. In Iran, there has been an increase in the number of animal bites in recent years. This study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites and their influencing factors in Semirom, Iran, from 2008 to 2012.
Methods
This was a descriptive study conducted for 5 years. The data were based on the information sheets presented in health-care centers concerning how to combat against rabies caused by animal bites. The data obtained were classified and analyzed statistically.
Results
During the 5-year study period, 1,246 animal bite cases were reported; 60% of the victims belonged to rural areas and the remaining 40% to urban areas. Among various aggressive animals, dogs had the highest rate of attacks (63.4%). The highest rate of animal bite (23.19%) was reported in the age group of 10–19 years and the lowest one (2.32%) was reported in the age group of 0–4 years. The animal bite rates among men and women were 76% and 24%; respectively. The highest and lowest rates were found among students (23.5%) and employees (5.5%), respectively. Regarding the commonly injured organ, the highest (67%) and lowest rates (23%) were for lower extremities and head and face, respectively. Regarding the nationality of the victims, 98% were Iranians and the rest were Afghan.
Conclusion
Given the increasing number of animal bites reported, there is a need to implement strategies to prevent bite-related complications, which may have health and financial burden on the country. It is also necessary to increase awareness among target groups and to formulate preventive strategies with the help of various authorities to control animal bites.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Epidemiology of Dog Bite Incidents in Chile: Factors Related to the Patterns of Human-Dog Relationship
    Carmen Luz Barrios, Carlos Bustos-López, Carlos Pavletic, Alonso Parra, Macarena Vidal, Jonathan Bowen, Jaume Fatjó
    Animals.2021; 11(1): 96.     CrossRef
  • Toxicity and protein composition of venoms of Hottentotta saulcyi , Hottentotta schach and Androctonus crassicauda , three scorpion species collected in Iran
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    Veterinary Medicine and Science.2021; 7(6): 2418.     CrossRef
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    Dandan Li, Hanlin Liao, Fan Chen, Qingqing Jiang, Tiantian Wang, Zuxun Lu, Qiaoyan Liu, Shiyi Cao
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri, Mousa Dehghani
    Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Maryam Janatolmakan, Mojtaba Delpak, Alireza Abdi, Sabah Mohamadi, Bahare Andayeshgar, Alireza Khatony
    BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Molecular Ecology.2019; 28(18): 4335.     CrossRef
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    Maryam Hajikari, Soheila Mojdeh, Mohsen Shariari
    Polish Annals of Medicine.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Fan Chen, Qiaoyan Liu, Qingqing Jiang, Jun Shi, Tegene Regassa Luba, Asefa Deressa Hundera, Pengqian Fang, Shiyi Cao, Zuxun Lu
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.2019; 1452(1): 78.     CrossRef
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    C.L. Barrios, M. Vidal, A. Parra, C. Valladares, C. González, C. Pavletic
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    Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri, Narges Mohammadzadeh
    Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hamed Najaran, Hamid Rashtbari, Abouzar Mohammadi, Fatemeh Soleimanifar, Fatemeh Izadpanah, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Hassan Hassani Bafrani
    Comparative Clinical Pathology.2019; 28(2): 479.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Purgative Manna Drop and Phototherapy with Phototherapy Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial
    Amirreza Monsef, Fatemeh Eghbalian, Neda Rahimi
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Epidemiological and Clinical Features of People with Malta Fever in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Roja Nikaeen, Ghasem Abedi, Motahareh Kheradmand, Saeid Safiri
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):157-167.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.009
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  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Numerous studies have reported the epidemiological and clinical features of Malta fever incidence in Iran. Review and synthesis of the related literature through meta-analysis can provide an appropriate measurement for aforementioned indices. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of people with Malta fever in Iran.
Methods
The required documents were obtained through searching national and international databases. In each study, standard deviation of the indices was calculated using binomial distribution formulas. Finally, the heterogeneity index was determined between studies using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests.
Results
Combining the results of 47 articles in the meta-analysis indicated that 57.6% (55.02–60.1%) and 42.3% (49.8–44.9%) of the patients were male and female, respectively. Most of the patients lived in rural areas; 68.4% (63.6–73.2%) compared to 31.4% (26.7–36.3%). In addition, 20.8% (17.4–24.2%) of the patients were ranchers and farmers, 16.9% (14.5–19.4%) were students, and 31.6% (27–36.2%) were housewives. Of the patients studies, 50.5% (35.6–65.2%) experienced contact with animals and 57.1% (46.4–67.9%) used unpasteurized dairy products. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among 65.7% (53.7–77.8%) and 55.3% (44.4–66.2%), respectively.
Conclusion
The present study revealed that the frequency of male patients with brucellosis was considerably more than that of female patients. The number of patients with Malta fever in rural areas was significantly more than in urban areas. High-risk behavior, unprotected contact with animals, and using unpasteurized dairy products were among the most significant factors affecting Malta fever incidence in Iran. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among most of the patients with Malta fever.

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Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran: A Systemic Review of the Published Literature
Jale Moradi, Farhad B. Hashemi, Abbas Bahador
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):79-86.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.006
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  • 43 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium responsible for health care-associated infections, and it frequently develops multiple drug resistance (MDR). The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii in Iran has increased, and this may cause significant clinical problems. Therefore, in order to elucidate the development of antibiotic resistance, we performed a systematic review of the literature published on antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii reported in Iran.
Methods
Thirty-six publications that met the criteria for inclusion were reviewed from an initial 87 papers. Selected papers published between 2008 and September 2014, were categorized on the basis of the sample collecting year been between 2001 and 2013.
Results
Analysis of data revealed that, in general, there was an increase in antimicrobial resistance. During the initial time point of these studies (2001–2007) there was a high rate of resistance to all antibiotics, with the exception of carbapenems, lipopeptides, and aminoglycosides that had a low resistance rate in comparison with the others. Also, the resistance rate was increased in one group of these three antimicrobial groups from 2010 to 2013. In particular, there was an increase in resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) from 2010–2011 and 2012–2013, whereas no significant change in the resistance rate of the other two antimicrobial groups (lipopeptides and aminoglycosides) during the study time was observed, although we did observe certain trends in amikacin (aminoglycoside group antibiotic) between 2011–2012 and 2012–2013.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that antimicrobial resistance of A. baumannii in Iran has increased, which may very well affect the antimicrobial resistance of this organism worldwide. Based on these results, novel prevention and treatment strategies against A. baumannii infections are warranted. Furthermore, these data may assist in revising treatment guidelines and regional policies in care units to slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

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Brief Report
Acute Human Cytomegalovirus Infection with Bleeding in Iran
Behzad Pourhossein, Farhad Yaghmaei, Saber Esmaeili, Omid Banafshi, Shahla Afrasiabian, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Mark Schleiss, Ehsan Mostafavi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(6):383-386.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.003
  • 1,677 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In December 2011, a 42-year-old male farmer was admitted to a hospital in Sanandaj (Western Iran) with fever and anemia in order to check whether he suffered from some infectious diseases. During the first 3 days after admission, the patient gradually developed progressive oliguria, fever, abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant, leukocytosis with toxic granulation, petechiae and ecchymosis, oral bleeding, and vomiting. The sonographic findings revealed splenomegaly and an increase in the thickness of the gall bladder wall. In order to manage the patient and taking into consideration the most probable differential diagnoses, diagnostic tests were performed on two blood samples collected from him, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for human cytomegalovirus was positive.
Original Articles
Characterization of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC and Carbapenemases among Iranain Nosocomial Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Using Phenotyping and Genotyping Methods
Alireza Japoni-Nejad, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Alex van Belkum
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(6):333-338.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.09.003
  • 1,928 View
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  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (PMABLs) and carbapenemases are emerging groups of antimicrobial-resistance determinants. The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of PMABLs and carbapenemases in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and compare the test performance of various phenotypic methods for detection of these enzymes in Iran.
Methods
A total of 100 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained in Valiasr Hospital. AmpC production in all isolates was determined using the AmpC disk test, the cephamycin Hodge test, the AmpC Etest, and the boronic acid combined-disk test. In addition, carbapenemase production was determined using the modified Hodge test, the EDTA disk synergy test, and the boronic acid combined-disk test. The performances of various phenotypic methods were evaluated by the comparison of their results with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method as the gold standard.
Results
Of the 100 isolates, 19 (19%) were demonstrated to harbor the PMABL-resistance gene by the multiplex PCR method. The PCR result indicated the presence of carbapenemase genes in 12 isolates. The performance of various phenotypic tests carried out for detection of carbapenemase-producing isolates varied widely, ranging in sensitivity from 30% to 100% and in specificity from 90.8% to 100%.
Conclusion
This is the first report of MOX-type AmpC β-lactamase and blaGES in K. pneumoniae in Iran. A comparison of the phenotypic methods showed that a combination of cefoxitin plus boronic acid is optimal for detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes in K. pneumoniae, whereas the implementation of molecular methods is often complex, requires specially trained personnel, and is associated with higher costs.

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Evidence Gap on the Prevalence of Non-conventional Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Iran
Abdolreza Shaghaghi, Ali Ahmadi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):292-297.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.002
  • 1,880 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Robust scientific evidence exists about the role of non-conventional risk factors in type 2 diabetes worldwide. The current epidemiological pattern of the disease in Iran suggests a precipitating role for these non-conventional risk factors. This review was performed to examine the research evidence suggesting a higher prevalence of non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in Iran.
Methods
MeSH keywords were applied to search several databases, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, Iran DOC, and the Scientific Information Database without a time limit from inception to September 2011. The quality of the non-interventional and population-based studies on Iranians included in these databases was assessed by the authors and any disagreement was resolved with consensus.
Results
The literature search yielded 1847 publications, of which 62 were included in this study after eliminating non-relevant and overlapping papers. No study was found that verified a higher prevalence of the non-conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors in the Iranian population.
Conclusion
The identified evidence gap about the role of prominent non-conventional risk factors of type 2 diabetes in the Iranian population could be a major caveat in the application of an evidence-based approach to endorse or reject existing hypothesis about these risk factors. Studies on the prevalence of non-conventional biomarkers of type 2 diabetes among Iranians could be a promising area of research.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and determinants of diabetes and prediabetes in southwestern Iran: the Khuzestan comprehensive health study (KCHS)
    Sanam Hariri, Zahra Rahimi, Nahid Hashemi-Madani, Seyyed Ali Mard, Farnaz Hashemi, Zahra Mohammadi, Leila Danehchin, Farhad Abolnezhadian, Aliasghar Valipour, Yousef Paridar, Mohammad Mahdi Mir-Nasseri, Alireza Khajavi, Sahar Masoudi, Saba Alvand, Bahman
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High Prevalence of Class 1 to 3 Integrons Among Multidrug-Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Southwest of Iran
Mohammad Kargar, Zahra Mohammadalipour, Abbas Doosti, Shahrokh Lorzadeh, Alireza Japoni-Nejad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(4):193-198.   Published online August 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.06.003
  • 2,191 View
  • 22 Download
  • 34 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Horizontal transfer of integrons is one of the important factors that can contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of integrons among MDR Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool specimens and investigate the associations between the existence of integrons and MDR properties in the southwest of Iran.
Methods
There were 164 E. coli strains isolated from January 2012 to June 2012. Fecal specimens identified as E. coli by the conventional methods. Subsequently the antibiotic resistance was assessed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute criteria. The presence of class 1–3 integrons and embedded gene cassettes was verified using specific primers by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay.
Results
Among a total of 164 studied samples, 69 (42.07%) isolates were multidrug resistant. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were present in 78.26% and 76.81% MDR isolates, respectively. For the first time in Iran, class 3 integron was observed in 26.09% MDR isolates. Significant correlations were identified between: class 1 integron and resistance to amikacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and co-trimoxazole; class 2 integron and resistance to aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, cefalexin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol; and class 3 integron and resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that integrons are common among MDR isolates and they can be used as a marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Therefore, due to the possibility of a widespread outbreak of MDR isolates, molecular surveillance and sequencing of the integrons in other parts of the country is recommended.

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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives