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Original Articles
Spatiotemporal analysis of environmental and physiographic factors related to malaria in Bareilly district, India
Shikhar Chaudhary, Biju Soman
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):123-132.   Published online March 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0304
  • 673 View
  • 46 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal clustering of reported malaria cases and to study the effects of various environmental and physiographic factors on malaria incidence in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: Malaria surveillance data were collected from the state health department and cleaned into an analyzable format. These data were analyzed along with meteorological, physiographic, and 2019 population data, which were obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department, National Aeronautics and Space Administration web portal, the Bhuvan platform of the Indian Space Research Organization, and the 2011 Census of India. Results: In total, 46,717 malaria cases were reported in Bareilly district in 2019, of which 25.99% were Plasmodium vivax cases and 74.01% were P. falciparum cases. The reported malaria cases in the district showed clustering, with significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I value=0.63), and space-time clustering (p<0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between monthly malaria incidence and the monthly mean temperature (with a lag of 1−2 months) and rainfall (with a lag of 1 month). A significant negative correlation was detected between the elevation of blocks (i.e., intermediate-level administrative districts) and annual malaria reporting. Conclusion: The presence of space-time clustering of malaria cases and its correlation with meteorological and physiographic factors indicate that routine spatial analysis of the surveillance data could help control and manage malaria outbreaks in the district.
Behavioral interventions for smoking cessation among adolescents: a rapid review and meta-analysis for the Korea Preventive Services Task Force
Younglee Choi, Cheol Min Lee, Belong Cho, Eon Sook Lee, Seung-Won Oh, Naae Lee, Jae Moon Yun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):177-186.   Published online June 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0018
  • 5,624 View
  • 119 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral smoking cessation interventions among adolescents.
Methods
MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, KoreaMed, and KMbase were searched from inception to June 2020. Systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were initially searched to perform a rapid SR. After selecting the final SR, RCTs after the publication year of the selected SR were searched. The primary outcome was smoking status after at least 6 months of follow-up, and the secondary outcome was smoking status at 4 weeks. Two reviewers independently assessed the selected studies’ quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The meta-analysis utilized a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model reporting the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The subgroup analysis utilized Cochrane’s Q.
Results
Thirty-two RCTs (11,637 participants) from a single SR were meta-analyzed. After 6 months of follow-up, the intervention group had significantly higher abstinence rates (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20−1.41; I2=26.46%). At 4 weeks of follow-up, the intervention group also had significantly higher abstinence rates (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.49–2.47; I2=0.00%). The subgroup analysis indicated a significant difference in the abstinence rate according to the study setting and the period between intervention completion and follow-up.
Conclusion
This review showed that adolescent behavioral smoking cessation intervention programs significantly increased abstinence rates compared to the usual care.
Review Article
COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Laboratory Findings, Comorbidities, and Clinical Outcomes Comparing Medical Staff versus the General Population
Mina Ebrahimi, Amal Saki Malehi, Fakher Rahim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):269-279.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.02
  • 5,024 View
  • 104 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material

This review compared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) laboratory findings, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes in patients from the general population versus medical staff to aid diagnosis of COVID-19 in a more timely, efficient, and accurate way. Electronic databases were searched up to 23rd March, 2020. The initial search yielded 6,527 studies. Following screening, 24 studies were included [18 studies (11,564 cases) of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the general public, and 6 studies (394 cases) in medical staff] in this review. Significant differences were observed in white blood cell counts (p < 0.001), lymphocyte counts (p < 0.001), platelet counts (p = 0.04), procalcitonin levels (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.001), and creatinine levels (p = 0.03) when comparing infected medical staff with the general public. The mortality rate was higher in the general population than in medical staff (8% versus 2%). This review showed that during the early stages of COVID-19, laboratory findings alone may not be significant predictors of infection and may just accompany increasing C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. In the symptomatic stage, the lymphocyte and platelet counts tended to decrease. Elevated D-dimer fibrin degradation product was associated with poor prognosis.

Short Communication
Contact Transmission of COVID-19 in South Korea: Novel Investigation Techniques for Tracing Contacts
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(1):60-63.   Published online February 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.09
  • 32,650 View
  • 996 Download
  • 98 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

In the epidemiological investigation of an infectious disease, investigating, classifying, tracking, and managing contacts by identifying the patient’s route are important for preventing further transmission of the disease. However, omissions and errors in previous activities can occur when the investigation is performed through only a proxy interview with the patient. To overcome these limitations, methods that can objectively verify the patient’s claims (medical facility records, Global Positioning System, card transactions, and closed-circuit television) were used for the recent ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 contact investigations in South Korea.

Original Articles
Natural Infection with Rabies Virus: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Human Brains
Firouzeh Farahtaj, Leila Alizadeh, Alireza Gholami, Alireza Tahamtan, Sadegh Shirian, Maryam Fazeli, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Ali Gorji, Hamid Mahmoudzadeh Niknam, Amir Ghaemi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):6-11.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.03
  • 3,377 View
  • 204 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Despite all the efforts and increased knowledge of rabies, the exact mechanisms of infection and mortality from the rabies virus are not well understood. To understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of rabies virus infection, it is crucial to study the tissue that the rabies virus naturally infects in humans.

Methods

Cerebellum brain tissue from 9 human post mortem cases from Iran, who had been infected with rabies virus, were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to evaluate the innate immune responses against the rabies virus.

Results

Histopathological examination revealed inflammation of the infected cerebellum and immunohistochemical analyses showed an increased immunoreactivity of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, caspase-9, toll-like receptor3 and toll-like receptor4 in the infected brain tissue.

Conclusion

These results indicated the involvement of innate immunity in rabies infected human brain tissue, which may aggravate the progression of this deadly disease.

The Prevalence of CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphisms in Malaria-endemic Population of Timor in East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia
Linawati Hananta, Indwiani Astuti, Ahmad Hamim Sadewa, Josephine Alice, Jontari Hutagalung, Mustofa
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):192-196.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.08
  • 2,782 View
  • 37 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans that has the potential to modify the pharmacological and toxicological responses to clinically important drugs such as antimalarial artemisinin and its derivatives. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Timor malaria endemic area, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia where Artemisin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated malaria.

Methods

A total of 109 healthy subjects were participated in this study. CYP2B6*4, *6 and *9 polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR-RFLP to confirm the SNPs prevalence of 516G>T and 785A>G in exon 4 and 5.

Results

There were 96 subjects included in the analysis. In the exon 4 of CYP2B6 516G>T, the frequency of the T mutation was 37.5% (39/96), and the wildtype 27.1% (26/96). In the exon 5, CYP2B6 785A>G mutant was detected in 29.2% (28/96) of individuals, and the wildtype allele in 35.4% (34/96). The frequency of CYP2B6*9 (516G>T), CYP2B6*4 (785A>G) and CYP2B6*6 (516G>T and 785A>G) were 40.6%, 29.2% and 22.9%, respectively. The prevalence of these CYP2B6 gene polymorphisms in Timorian ethnic were higher than that in Malay, Han Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian populations.

Conclusion

The prevalence of these CYP2B6 516G>T and 785A>G polymorphisms in Timorian ethnic is higher than that in other populations. These polymorphisms may affect the metabolism of artemisinin and its derivatives.

How do Sexual Identity, and Coming Out Affect Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in South Korea?
Byonghee Cho, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):281-288.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.09.001
  • 1,556 View
  • 24 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the status of sexual identity, perceived stigma, stress, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts. It also examined how sexual identity and “coming out” affect stress, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts.
Methods
Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using the Internet to maximize the confidentiality of the participants, men who have sex with men (MSM). The data were collected from a total of 873 MSM aged between 19 years and 59 years in 2014.
Results
Only 20.9% of the MSM had come out (18.0% voluntarily and 2.9% by others). The prevalences of perceived stress and depression among MSM were 46.7% and 42.7%, respectively, compared with 20.1% and 7.4% among general men. Approximately 32% of the MSM reported any suicidal ideation, and 3.3% had attempted suicide in the past year. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with being age 30–39 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8], high school or less (OR = 1.6), having been outed (OR = 5.2), feeling stressed (OR = 1.8), and feeling depressed (OR = 12.4) after sociodemographic factors and other perceptions were controlled for.
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence that MSM are at an elevated risk for suicidal ideation and attempts with high stress and depression. Some risk factors were specific to being gay or bisexual in a hostile environment.
Epidemiological and Clinical Features of People with Malta Fever in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Roja Nikaeen, Ghasem Abedi, Motahareh Kheradmand, Saeid Safiri
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):157-167.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.009
  • 1,657 View
  • 18 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Numerous studies have reported the epidemiological and clinical features of Malta fever incidence in Iran. Review and synthesis of the related literature through meta-analysis can provide an appropriate measurement for aforementioned indices. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of people with Malta fever in Iran.
Methods
The required documents were obtained through searching national and international databases. In each study, standard deviation of the indices was calculated using binomial distribution formulas. Finally, the heterogeneity index was determined between studies using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests.
Results
Combining the results of 47 articles in the meta-analysis indicated that 57.6% (55.02–60.1%) and 42.3% (49.8–44.9%) of the patients were male and female, respectively. Most of the patients lived in rural areas; 68.4% (63.6–73.2%) compared to 31.4% (26.7–36.3%). In addition, 20.8% (17.4–24.2%) of the patients were ranchers and farmers, 16.9% (14.5–19.4%) were students, and 31.6% (27–36.2%) were housewives. Of the patients studies, 50.5% (35.6–65.2%) experienced contact with animals and 57.1% (46.4–67.9%) used unpasteurized dairy products. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among 65.7% (53.7–77.8%) and 55.3% (44.4–66.2%), respectively.
Conclusion
The present study revealed that the frequency of male patients with brucellosis was considerably more than that of female patients. The number of patients with Malta fever in rural areas was significantly more than in urban areas. High-risk behavior, unprotected contact with animals, and using unpasteurized dairy products were among the most significant factors affecting Malta fever incidence in Iran. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among most of the patients with Malta fever.
Comparison of Three Different Methods for Detection of IL28 rs12979860 Polymorphisms as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus
Abolfazl Fateh, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Seyed D. Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Farzin Sadeghi, Roohollah Fateh, Hossein Keyvani, Alireza H. Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Angila Ataei-Pirkooh, Seyed H. Monavari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):83-89.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.004
  • 1,627 View
  • 16 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the specificity, sensitivity, cost, and turn-around time of three methods of gene polymorphism analysis and to study the relationship between IL28B rs12979860 and SVR rate to pegIFN-α/RVB therapy among patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Methods
A total of 100 samples from chronic hepatitis C patients were analyzed in parallel using the three methods: direct sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR.
Results
The different profiles for IL28B rs12979860 alleles (CC, CT, and TT) obtained with PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, and direct sequencing were consistent among the three methods. Prevalence of rs12979860 genotypes CC, CT and TT in HCV genotype 1a was 10(19.6%), 35(68.6%), and six (11.8%), respectively, and in HCV genotype 31, it was 13(26.5%), 31(63.3%), and five (10.2%), respectively. No significant difference was seen between rs12979860 genotype and HCV genotype (p = 0.710).
Conclusion
Screening by ARMS – PCR SNOP detection represents the most efficient and reliable method to determine HCV polymorphisms in routine clinical practice.
Modeling Chagas Disease at Population Level to Explain Venezuela's Real Data
Gilberto González-Parra, Benito M. Chen-Charpentier, Moises Bermúdez
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(5):288-301.   Published online October 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.09.001
  • 1,286 View
  • 15 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In this paper we present an age-structured epidemiological model for Chagas disease. This model includes the interactions between human and vector populations that transmit Chagas disease.
Methods
The human population is divided into age groups since the proportion of infected individuals in this population changes with age as shown by real prevalence data. Moreover, the age-structured model allows more accurate information regarding the prevalence, which can help to design more specific control programs. We apply this proposed model to data from the country of Venezuela for two periods, 1961–1971, and 1961–1991 taking into account real demographic data for these periods.
Results
Numerical computer simulations are presented to show the suitability of the age-structured model to explain the real data regarding prevalence of Chagas disease in each of the age groups. In addition, a numerical simulation varying the death rate of the vector is done to illustrate prevention and control strategies against Chagas disease.
Conclusion
The proposed model can be used to determine the effect of control strategies in different age groups.
TEM and SHV Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Cockroaches and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern
Abbas Doosti, Mohammad Pourabbas, Asghar Arshi, Mohammad Chehelgerdi, Hamidreza Kabiri
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):3-8.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.011
  • 1,395 View
  • 44 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod bacterium, a known cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and is an important hospital-acquired pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify the TEM and SHV genes in K. pneumoniae isolated from cockroaches obtained from hospitals.
Methods
In this study, 250 cockroaches were collected from different hospitals in the province of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari, which is located in southwest Iran. The samples were examined for the presence of K. pneumoniae by plating onto a combination of culture media, and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated K. pneumoniae from samples were evaluated using the disk diffusion test. In addition, from the culture, genomic bacterial DNA was extracted, and sequence-specific targets (TEM and SHV genes) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Results
Out of 250 cockroach samples collected from various hospitals, 179 samples (71.60%) were positive for K. pneumoniae. PCR reaction was performed using specific oligonucleotide primers (TEM-F, TEM-R and SHV-F, SHV-R) for the amplification of each gene, and amplified products were visualized on 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Of all the specimens amplified by PCR in this research, 32 samples (17.87%) were positive for TEM and 15 samples (8.37%) were positive for SHV.
Conclusion
Detection of TEM and SHV genes using molecular methods and their pattern of antimicrobial resistance can provide useful information about the epidemiology of and risk factors associated with K. pneumoniae infection.
Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Jae-Hong Park, Eun Shil Cha, Yousun Ko, Myung-Sil Hwang, Jin-Hwan Hong, Won Jin Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(2):77-84.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.02.001
  • 1,441 View
  • 23 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study extended and updated a meta-analysis of the association between exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and the risk of breast cancer.
Methods
We reviewed the published literature on exposure to DDE and breast cancer risk to update a meta-analysis from 2004. The total of 35 studies included 16 hospital-based case–control studies, 11 population-based case–control studies, and 10 nested case–control studies identified through keyword searches in the PubMed and EMBASE databases.
Results
The summary odds ratio (OR) for the identified studies was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.95–1.12) and the overall heterogeneity in the OR was observed (I2 = 40.9; p = 0.006). Subgroup meta-analyses indicated no significant association between exposure to DDE and breast cancer risk by the type of design, study years, biological specimen, and geographical region of the study, except from population-based case–control studies with estimated DDE levels in serum published in 1990s.
Conclusion
Existing studies do not support the view that DDE increases the risk of breast cancer in humans. However, further studies incorporating more detailed information on DDT exposure and other potential risk factors for breast cancer are needed.
Obesity and Asian Americans in the United States: Systematic Literature Review
Sanggon Nam
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):187-193.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.001
  • 1,377 View
  • 18 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in the world today. Asian Americans are usually less overweight and obese than African Americans and Hispanic Americans, but the rate of obesity in Asian Americans is still increasing, especially in younger generations. This research examines Asian American obesity using existing research, as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research.
Methods
In this research literature review, Asian American obesity using existing research as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research is examined. A systematic review is done in order to find Asian American obesity research, due to the minimal amount of existing studies. In total, there were only nine papers which were not duplicates and which still met the criteria for inclusion, from an initial 106 papers.
Results
There is very little research on obesity in Asian Americans. Although the rate of obesity among Asian Americans is increasing, there are few related articles, projects, and surveys, and there is little information. There is a need for more specific and in-depth analysis of Asian American obesity. Asian Americans are associated with a lower waist circumference (WC) and BMI, while Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders are associated with a higher WC and BMI. Typically, Asian Americans who were born in the United States (US) tend to be overweight and more obese than those born in foreign countries.
Conclusion
Based on this literature review, it is concluded that there is a shortage of Asian American obesity research, even though there is an evident need for particular obesity intervention programs that target Asian Americans.
Modeling for Estimating Influenza Patients from ILI Surveillance Data in Korea
Joo-Sun Lee, Sun-Hee Park, Jin-Woong Moon, Jacob Lee, Yong Gyu Park, Yong Kyun Roh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):89-93.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.08.001
  • 1,533 View
  • 17 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Prediction of influenza incidence among outpatients from an influenza surveillance system is important for public influenza strategy.
Methods
We developed two influenza prediction models through influenza surveillance data of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (each year, each province and metropolitan city; total reported patients with influenza-like illness stratified by age) for 6 years from 2005 to 2010 and disease-specific data (influenza code J09-J11, monthly number of influenza patients, total number of outpatients and hospital visits) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service.
Results
Incidence of influenza in each area, year, and month was estimated from our prediction models, which were validated by simulation processes. For example, in November 2009, Seoul and Joenbuk, the final number of influenza patients calculated by prediction models A and B underestimated actual reported cases by 64 and 833 patients, respectively, in Seoul and 6 and 9 patients, respectively, in Joenbuk. R-square demonstrated that prediction model A was more suitable than model B for estimating the number of influenza patients.
Conclusion
Our prediction models from the influenza surveillance system could estimate the nationwide incidence of influenza. This prediction will provide important basic data for national quarantine activities and distributing medical resources in future pandemics.
Brief Report
Registration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines: Korea, 2010
Ji-Yoon Lee, Dae-Yeon Lee, Young-Sil Choi, Kyoung-Jae Lee, Yong-Ou Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):141-147.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.07.002
  • 1,366 View
  • 13 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
In an effort to increase the credibility of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines established in Korea, obligatory registration was introduced by the Bioethics and Safety Act 2008, effective as of January 1, 2010.The DNA fingerprint, chromosome stability, expression of pluripotency markers, and contamination of mycoplasma of the submitted lines were analyzed by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). The characterization data and ethical aspects, such as informed consent for donation of surplus embryos, were reviewed by a 10-member advisory review committee for stem cell registry.A total of 55 domestic hESC lines were submitted for registration in 2010; among them 51 were registered. Among these submitted lines, 26 were additionally characterized by KCDC, while 25 lines previously characterized by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology were not additionally analyzed by KCDC.Registration completed an oversight system for embryo research by registering the products of licensed embryo research projects, making embryo research more transparent in Korea. Information about hESC lines is available at the website of the Korea Stem Cell Registry (kscr.nih.go.kr).

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives