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Short Communication
Socio-demographic disparities in the eating behaviour of Malaysian children during the COVID-19 lockdown
Sabrina Premila Joseph Louis, Tan Seok Tyug
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):196-199.   Published online May 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0053
  • 5,974 View
  • 128 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the eating behaviour of Malaysian children aged 2 to 11 years old during the Movement Control Order (MCO) due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Methods
A total of 204 Malaysian parents of children aged 2 to 11 years old were recruited for this study using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling approaches. Parents were required to fill an online questionnaire hosted on Google Forms, which consisted of socio-demographic characteristics (including child’s gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as parental income during the MCO) and a 35-item list from the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Data analysis was conducted by further stratifying the children's eating behaviour according to socio-demographic characteristics.
Results
No significant differences were observed in the eating behaviour of the children across age and parental income groups during the MCO. Malaysian Indian children had significantly lower mean scores for the food responsiveness (2.50±0.64) and emotional over-eating (2.13±0.72) subscales than Malaysian Chinese children. Girls had a significantly higher mean score for the slowness in eating subscale during the MCO than boys.
Conclusion
Children’s eating behaviour were comparable across socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, the findings of the current study provide an overview of Malaysian children's eating behaviour during the MCO.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Social determinants of self-reported psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study
    Seok Tyug Tan, Louisa Lee
    Psychology, Health & Medicine.2023; 28(2): 419.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Dietary Intake Patterns and Weight Status during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Cross-Sectional Study Focusing on Young Adults in Malaysia
    Seok Tyug Tan, Chin Xuan Tan, Seok Shin Tan
    Nutrients.2022; 14(2): 280.     CrossRef
  • Food security during the COVID-19 home confinement: A cross-sectional study focusing on adults in Malaysia
    Seok Tyug Tan, Chin Xuan Tan, Seok Shin Tan
    Human Nutrition & Metabolism.2022; 27: 200142.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Secondhand Smoking Among Children in Rural Households: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh
Rishad Choudhury Robin, Narongsak Noosorn, Sheikh Mohammad Alif
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):201-208.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.09
  • 7,340 View
  • 97 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the factors associated with reducing exposure to secondhand smoke among children in households of rural Bangladesh.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 410 smokers and non-smokers, in 6 villages of Munshigonj district was conducted. Data were collected randomly using a self-administrative questionnaire. Differences between variables were assessed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (as appropriate). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate associations. All results were presented as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. The level of statistical significance was reached when p < 0.05.

Results

A smoker in the household was determined to be a risk factor associated with exposure of other household members to secondhand smoke (p < 0.001). Higher education, strict implementation of household smoke-free rules, a higher influence of social norms and culture, as well as moderate knowledge on exposure to secondhand smoke were considered as preventive factors associated with exposure of others in the home to secondhand smoke.

Conclusion

Exposure to secondhand smoke is an extensive and preventable risk factor for children, and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will have a largely positive effect in the community. An effective public health intervention model may reduce secondhand smoking.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with poor sleep quality among non-smoking university students in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional survey
    Md. Hasan Al Banna, Keith Brazendale, Mohammad Hamiduzzaman, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Mohammad Tazrian Abid, M. A. Rifat, Mst. Sadia Sultana, Justice Kanor Tetteh, Satyajit Kundu, Md Shaheenur Rahman Shekhar, Md Khaleduzzaman, Md. Nazmul Hassan
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Need for sensitization on serious threats of second-hand smoke: Findings from a national study in Mauritius, a small island developing state in the Indian Ocean
    Marie Chan Sun, Urmila D. Beeharry Panray, Jayrani Cheeneebash, Raj Gunesh
    Preventive Medicine Reports.2022; 25: 101667.     CrossRef
  • Muslim Communities Learning About Second-hand Smoke in Bangladesh (MCLASS II): a combined evidence and theory-based plus partnership intervention development approach
    Ian Kellar, Zunayed Al Azdi, Cath Jackson, Rumana Huque, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Kamran Siddiqi
    Pilot and Feasibility Studies.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Second Hand Smoke Exposure among Children in Indian Homes: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey
    Jaya Prasad Tripathy
    Behavioral Medicine.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Social measures for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke in migrant workers of sugarcane harvest in the lower northern region of Thailand
    Narongsak Noosorn, Anukool Manoton, Rishad Choudhury Robin
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2021; 19(September): 1.     CrossRef
Nutritional Status of Indonesian Children in Low-Income Households with Fathers that Smoke
Maria Wijaya-Erhardt
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):64-71.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.04
  • 21,568 View
  • 206 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared the nutritional status of children in low-income households in Indonesia whose fathers were either cigarette smokers or non-smokers.

Methods

A cross sectional study of 482 children aged 2–6 years was conducted, stratified by whether the fathers were non-smoking (n = 138) or smoking (n = 340). Mothers and smoking fathers were interviewed about socioeconomic status and cigarette expenditure, respectively. The nutritional status of children was defined by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height.

Results

Both groups had similar income. Households with a father that smoked, spent 16.6% of their income on cigarettes. Children whose fathers did not smoke had higher height-for-age (−1.99 vs. −2.25 Z-score, p = 0.02) than children whose fathers smoked. Weight-for-age in children with fathers that did not smoke was greater (−1.49 vs. −1.64 Z-score) but not statistically significantly different to those children with fathers that smoked, nor was child weight-for-height (−0.46 vs. −0.45 Z-score). The prevalence of stunted growth was higher in the children with a father that smoked compared with those that had a father did not smoke (62.2 vs. 49.6%, p = 0.07, respectively). There were 28.3% of children underweight in homes where the fathers did not smoke, and 35.6% in households where the father smoked (p = 0.11). Wasting was observed in 4.4% children where fathers did not smoke and 4.7% where fathers did smoke.

Conclusion

With similar income constraints, the degree of height growth faltering was less in children whose fathers did not smoke, compared to those whose fathers did smoke.

Citations

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  • Crowding-out effect of tobacco consumption in Indonesia
    Arya Swarnata, Fariza Zahra Kamilah, I Dewa Gede Karma Wisana, Yurdhina Meilissa, Gita Kusnadi
    Tobacco Control.2024; : tc-2022-057843.     CrossRef
  • Do parental Smoking Behaviors Affect Children's Thinness, Stunting, and Overweight Status in Indonesia? Evidence from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Survey
    Adrianna Bella, Teguh Dartanto, Dimitri Swasthika Nurshadrina, Gita Kusnadi, Faizal Rahmanto Moeis, Renny Nurhasana, Aryana Satrya, Hasbullah Thabrany
    Journal of Family and Economic Issues.2023; 44(3): 714.     CrossRef
  • Sustainable Iodized Salt Fortification Reduces the Risk of Underweight Among Under-Five Children
    Nadiyah, Idrus Jus'at, Devi Angeliana Kusumaningtiar, Anugrah Novianti
    Journal of Law and Sustainable Development.2023; 11(9): e1207.     CrossRef
  • Developmental trajectories of body mass index since childhood and health-related quality of life in young adulthood: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
    Parnian Parvin, Parisa Amiri, Mohammad Masih Mansouri-Tehrani, Leila Cheraghi, Amirali Zareie Shab-khaneh, Fereidoun Azizi
    Quality of Life Research.2022; 31(7): 2093.     CrossRef
  • Cigarette smoke exposure and increased risks of stunting among under-five children
    Dyah Dwi Astuti, Tri Widyastuti Handayani, Duwi Pudji Astuti
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.2020; 8(3): 943.     CrossRef
  • The association between secondhand smoke exposure and growth outcomes of children: A systematic literature review
    Siti Nadhiroh, Kusharisupeni Djokosujono, Diah Mulyawati Utari
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Prevalence of Fecal Carriage of CTX-M-15 Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children from a Rural Andean Village in Venezuela
María Araque, Indira Labrador
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):9-15.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.03
  • 5,584 View
  • 44 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Antimicrobial resistant extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) have been shown to be present in healthy communities. This study examined healthy children from the rural Andean village of Llano del Hato, Mérida, Venezuela, who have had little or no antibiotic exposure to determine the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC).

Methods

A total of 78 fecal samples were collected in healthy children aged from 1 to 5 years. ESBL-EC were selected in MacConkey agar plates with cefotaxime and further confirmed by the VITEK 2 system. ESBL were phenotypically detected and presence of bla genes and their variants were confirmed by molecular assays. Determination of phylogenetic groups was performed by PCR amplification. Risk factors associated with fecal carriage of ESBL-EC-positive isolates were analyzed using standard statistical methods.

Results

Of the 78 children studied, 27 (34.6%) carried ESBL-EC. All strains harbored the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Of these, 8 were co-producers of blaTEM-1, blaTEM-5, blaSHV-5 or blaSHV-12. Co-resistance to aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones was observed in 9 strains. 51.9% of ESBL-EC isolates were classified within phylogroup A. A significant, positive correlation was found between age (≥2.5 – ≤5 years), food consumption patterns and ESBL-EC fecal carriage.

Conclusion

This is the first study describing the high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-EC expressing CTX-M-15- among very young, healthy children from a rural Andean village in Venezuela with scarce antibiotic exposure, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir.

Citations

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  • First Report of IMI-2-Producing Enterobacter bugandensis and CTX-M-55-Producing Escherichia coli isolated from Healthy Volunteers in Tunisia
    Rym Ben Sallem, Ameni Arfaoui, Afef Najjari, Isabel Carvalho, Abdelmalek Lekired, Hadda-Imen Ouzari, Karim Ben Slama, Alex Wong, Carmen Torres, Naouel Klibi
    Antibiotics.2023; 12(1): 116.     CrossRef
  • Co-Harboring of Beta-Lactamases and mcr-1 Genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Healthy Carriers and Backyard Animals in Rural Communities in Ecuador
    Carlos Bastidas-Caldes, Emily Cisneros-Vásquez, Antonella Zambrano, Andrea Mosquera-Maza, William Calero-Cáceres, Joaquín Rey, Yoshimasa Yamamoto, Mayumi Yamamoto, Manuel Calvopiña, Jacobus H. de Waard
    Antibiotics.2023; 12(5): 856.     CrossRef
  • Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase- and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Family of Bacteria from Diarrheal Stool Samples in Northwest Ethiopia
    Minichil Worku, Michael Getie, Feleke Moges, Alem Getaneh Mehari, Jayaraman Tharmalingam
    Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Disea.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE–PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE FROM CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) FROM WILD AND SANCTUARY LOCATIONS IN UGANDA
    Sandra L. Bager, Isaac Kakaala, Egle Kudirkiene, Denis K. Byarugaba, John Elmerdahl Olsen
    Journal of Wildlife Diseases.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relevant increase of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli carriage in school-aged children from rural areas of the Bolivian Chaco in a three-year period
    Selene Rebecca Boncompagni, Maria Micieli, Tiziana Di Maggio, Antonia Mantella, Anna Liz Villagrán, Tatiana Briggesth Miranda, Carmen Revollo, Veronica Poma, Herlan Gamboa, Michele Spinicci, Marianne Strohmeyer, Alessandro Bartoloni, Gian Maria Rossolini,
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2022; 121: 126.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the global prevalence and trend of human intestinal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli between healthcare and community settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Yihienew M. Bezabih, Alemayehu Bezabih, Michel Dion, Eric Batard, Samson Teka, Abiy Obole, Noah Dessalegn, Alelegn Enyew, Anna Roujeinikova, Endalkachew Alamneh, Corinne Mirkazemi, Gregory M. Peterson, Woldesellassie M. Bezabhe
    JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases and pAmpC Producing Enterobacterales in an Iranian Community: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Molecular Epidemiology, and Antibiotic Resistance
    Nasrin Habibzadeh, Hadi Peeri Doghaheh, Meysam Manouchehri Far, Hossein Alimohammadi Asl, Sohrab Iranpour, Mohsen Arzanlou
    Microbial Drug Resistance.2022; 28(9): 921.     CrossRef
  • Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producing Escherichia coli in South America: A Systematic Review with a One Health Perspective
    Carlos Bastidas-Caldes, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Victor Valdez-Vélez, Roberto D Morales, Andrés Montalvo-Hernández, Cicero Gomes-Dias, Manuel Calvopiña
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2022; Volume 15: 5759.     CrossRef
  • The global prevalence and trend of human intestinal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the community
    Yihienew M Bezabih, Wilber Sabiiti, Endalkachew Alamneh, Alamneh Bezabih, Gregory M Peterson, Woldesellassie M Bezabhe, Anna Roujeinikova
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.2021; 76(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • Global prevalence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing-Escherichia coli in dogs and cats – A scoping review and meta-analysis
    Marília Salgado-Caxito, Julio A. Benavides, Aiko D. Adell, Antonio Carlos Paes, Andrea I. Moreno-Switt
    One Health.2021; 12: 100236.     CrossRef
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    BMC Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Epidemiological Pattern and Risk Factor of ESBL (Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamase) Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gut Bacterial Flora of Dairy Cows and People Surrounding in Rural Area, Indonesia
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    Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Dise.2020; 8(3): 144.     CrossRef
Review Article
Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghasem Abedi, Mahdi Afshari, Seif Ali Mahdavi, Fereshteh Farshidi, Elham Kheradmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):108-115.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.02
  • 4,685 View
  • 73 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Enterobius vermicularis is a parasitic disease that is common in crowded areas such as schools and kindergartens. Primary investigations of electronic evidence have reported different prevalences of E. vermicularis in Iran. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total prevalence of this infection among Iranian children using a meta-analysis.

Methods

Relevant studies were identified in national and international databases. We selected eligible papers for meta-analysis after investigating titles, abstracts, and full texts; assessing study quality; and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. The results were combined using a random effects model in Stata v. 11 software.

Results

Among 19 eligible articles including 11,676 participants, the prevalences of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 1.2%–66.1%, 2.3%–65.5%, and 1.7%–65.5%, respectively. Pooled prevalences (95% confidence interval) of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), and 16.9% (9.03%–24.8%), respectively.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis showed that a great majority of Iranian children are infected with E. vermicularis, possibly due to poor public health.

Citations

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  • Factors related to the mortality risk of severe hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMD): a 5-year hospital-based survey in Guangxi, Southern China
    Yuanjun Peng, Weitao He, Zhigang Zheng, Peijiang Pan, Yu Ju, Zhenwei Lu, Yanyan Liao, Hailong Wang, Chao Zhang, Jing Wang, Lina Jiang, Hao Liang, Minmei Chen, Li Ye
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    Parasite Epidemiology and Control.2023; 22: e00315.     CrossRef
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    Elham Kia Lashaki, Azadeh Mizani, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Bentolhoda Habibi, Khadijeh Taherkhani, Amir Javadi, AliReza Taremiha, Samira Dodangeh
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(6): 441.     CrossRef
  • Enterobiasis and its risk factors in urban, rural and indigenous children of subtropical Argentina
    Maria Romina Rivero, Carlos De Angelo, Constanza Feliziani, Song Liang, Karina Tiranti, Martin Miguel Salas, Oscar Daniel Salomon
    Parasitology.2022; 149(3): 396.     CrossRef
  • Investigation of the Prevalence of Enterobius Vermicularis Infection and Risk Factors among Kindergartens in Hamadan, West of Iran, in 2019
    Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Parsaei, Eissa Soleymani, Ali Jamshidizad, Afshin Azimi
    Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 28(4): 253.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiologic Study of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Schoolchildren in the Republic of Marshall Islands
    Chia-Kwung Fan, Pasaikou Sonko, Yueh-Lun Lee, Ai-Wen Yin, Ting-Wu Chuang, Ramson Kios, Ying-Ting Wang, Chia-Mei Chou, Shao-Lun Hsu, Mai-Szu Wu, Jia-Wei Lin, Chia-Ying Tu, Pedro P. Chieffi
    Journal of Tropical Medicine.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
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    Antonia Ceccarelli, Victoria Ann Mifsud, Amna Dogar
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  • Halk Sağlığı Uygulamalarının Enterobius Vermicularis’in Korunma ve Kontrolündeki Önemi
    Kamuran ÖZDİL, Nimet KARATAŞ, Handan ZİNCİR
    Nevşehir Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi.2020; 9(2): 154.     CrossRef
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    Atefeh Tavan, Fattaneh Mikaeili, SeyedMahmoud Sadjjadi, Sara Bajelan, Hossein Mahmoudvand, Meysam Sharifdini
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    Iranian South Medical Journal.2018; 21(2): 125.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children
Hae Ok Kim, Gyo Nam Kim, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):121-125.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.007
  • 3,255 View
  • 36 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology.
Methods
A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results.
Results
There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.”
Conclusion
The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.

Citations

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  • The social ecology of health promotion within war-effected refugee preschool children
    Nilufer Kuru, Nilgun Kuru Alici, Berrin Akman
    International Journal of Intercultural Relations.2023; 94: 101788.     CrossRef
  • The correlation between maternal mealtime behaviors and children’s body mass index
    Nevin USLU, Fahriye PAZARCIKCI
    Adıyaman Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi.2020; 6(2): 223.     CrossRef
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    Alexandre A Ferraro
    The Journal of Nutrition.2019; 149(5): 703.     CrossRef
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    Michelle Queally, Edel Doherty, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Elaine Toomey, John Cullinan, Janas M. Harrington, Patricia M. Kearney
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and .2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Érica Bezerra Nobre, Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani, Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro
    Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira.2016; 62(6): 494.     CrossRef
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    Janaína Paula Costa da Silva, Vicente Sarubbi Junior, Viviane Gabriela Nascimento, Ciro João Bertoli, Paulo Rogério Gallo, Claudio Leone
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  • Depression among Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Ansan-Community-Based Epidemiological Study
    Chan Young Park, So Young Kim, Jong Won Gil, Min Hee Park, Jong-Hyock Park, Yeonjung Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(4): 224.     CrossRef
The Influence of Dietary Patterns on the Nutritional Profile in a Korean Child Cohort Study
Hyeon-Jeong Choi, Hyojee Joung, Hye-Ja Lee, Han Byul Jang, Jae-Heon Kang, Jihyun Song
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(1):59-64.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.04.007
  • 2,794 View
  • 14 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of the present study was to identify the major dietary patterns of seven- and eight-year-old Korean children and to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and obesity, nutrient intake, and diet quality.
Methods
The subjects were 284 seven- and eight-year-old children who participated in the Gwacheon child cohort study. Three dietary patterns emerged from the factor analysis: Korean, modified Western, and Western. Cluster analysis was used to classify the subjects into two dietary groups: Korean and Western diet patterns.
Results
The two different dietary patterns were closely related to dietary quality which in turn was related to health risks. The Western diet group had a lower fiber intake, a higher intake of energy, fat and calcium and a higher dietary diversity score (DDS) than the Korean diet group. The number of days when fruit, milk and dairy products were omitted from the diet was higher for the Korean diet group than for the Western group.
Conclusions
Dietary patterns and related diet quality should be considered when designing nutrition policy and intervention programs for children.

Citations

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    Ayşe Burcu Başçı, Oya Nuran Emiroğlu, Bilge Kalanlar
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives