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Aflatoxin M1 Contamination Levels in Cheeses Sold in Isfahan Province, Iran
Ali Sharifzadeh, Payam Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Mohsen Foroughi, Elham Mardanpour-Shahrekordi, Shahin Ramazi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(4):260-263.   Published online August 31, 2017
  • 3,906 View
  • 22 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)-contaminated dairy products pose serious human health risks, causing liver and renal failure if consumed. They are also related to decreased milk and egg production in infected animals. This study investigated the AFM1 contamination levels in cheeses sold in Isfahan province, Iran, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


A total of 100 white cheese samples were randomly collected from supermarkets in Isfahan province and after extraction using dichloromethane were prepared for the ELISA.


Of the 100 samples, 52 (52%) were contaminated by AFM1, at levels ranging from 50.2 to 424.4 ng/kg. The remaining 48% of the samples had undetectable AFM1 levels (< 50 ng/kg). Based on the standard limit set by the European Commission and Iran, 8% (8/100) of the AFM1-positive samples (with concentrations between 250.2 and 424.4 ng/kg) had levels higher than the permissible value of 250 ng/kg.


Although the percentage of cheese samples in Isfahan province with AFM1 levels exceeding the national permissible limit was low, the examination of cheeses and the milk used for their production is nevertheless important for ensuring public health. Furthermore, optimum storage conditions of animal feed should be ensured, and livestock nutrition must be monitored for the presence of AFM1 and other aflatoxins.


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    Lu Sun, Runyan Li, Bowen Tai, Sarfaraz Hussain, Gang Wang, Xiumin Liu, Fuguo Xing
    ACS Food Science & Technology.2023; 3(2): 231.     CrossRef
  • A national systematic literature review for aflatoxin M1 in commonly consumed cheese brands in Iran: Human health risk assessment by Monte Carlo simulation
    Tooraj Massahi, Amir Kiani, Kiomars Sharafi, Abdullah Khalid Omer, Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh, Jalil Jaafari, Nazir Fattahi, Kimya Parnoon
    Heliyon.2023; 9(9): e19679.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and concentration of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in cheese: a global systematic review and meta-analysis and probabilistic risk assessment
    Trias Mahmudiono, Yeganeh Mazaheri, Parisa Sadighara, Zeynab Akbarlou, Somayeh Hoseinvandtabar, Yadolah Fakhri
    Reviews on Environmental Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products: global occurrence and potential decontamination strategies
    Khurram Muaz, Muhammad Riaz, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, Saeed Akhtar, Shinawar Waseem Ali, Habibullah Nadeem, Sungkwon Park, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian
    Toxin Reviews.2022; 41(2): 588.     CrossRef
  • The prevalence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in conventional and industrial dairy products (yogurt, cheese, kashk and dough) of Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Pouran Makhdoumi, Hooshyar Hossini, Reza Mohammadi, Mojtaba Limoee
    Reviews on Environmental Health.2022; 37(1): 123.     CrossRef
  • Aflatoxin‐M1 contamination in cheese of six countries in the West Asia region: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Salman Mohammadi, Majid Keshavarzi, Asma Kazemi, Samane Rahmdel, Mehran Nouri, Ayoob Rastegar, Ali Ghaffarian‐Bahraman
    International Journal of Dairy Technology.2022; 75(3): 653.     CrossRef
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    Nii Korley Kortei, Theophilus Annan, Parise Adadi
    Journal of Food Quality.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
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    Salman Mohammadi, Khosro Behmaram, Majid Keshavarzi, Somayeh Saboori, Abbas Jafari, Ali Ghaffarian-Bahraman
    International Dairy Journal.2022; 133: 105437.     CrossRef
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    Bruna L Gonçalves, Rômulo D Ulliana, Gustavo L P A Ramos, Adriano G Cruz, Carlos A F Oliveira, Eliana S Kamimura, Carlos H Corassin
    International Journal of Dairy Technology.2021; 74(2): 431.     CrossRef
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    Péter Sipos, Ferenc Peles, Dóra Lili Brassó, Béla Béri, Tünde Pusztahelyi, István Pócsi, Zoltán Győri
    Toxins.2021; 13(3): 204.     CrossRef
  • Aflatoxin M1 contamination level in Iranian milk and dairy products: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    S. Hamzeh Pour, S. Mahmoudi, S. Masoumi, S. Rezaie, A. Barac, M. Ranjbaran, S. Oliya, F. Mehravar, E. Sasani, F. Noorbakhsh, S. Khodavaisy
    World Mycotoxin Journal.2020; 13(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Microbial quality and safety of milk and milk products in the 21st century
    Vincenzina Fusco, Daniele Chieffi, Francesca Fanelli, Antonio F. Logrieco, Gyu‐Sung Cho, Jan Kabisch, Christina Böhnlein, Charles M. A. P. Franz
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Saf.2020; 19(4): 2013.     CrossRef
  • Aflatoxin M1 in Nicaraguan and locally made hard white cheeses marketed in El Salvador
    Oscar Peña-Rodas, Roxana Martinez-Lopez, Mario Pineda-Rivas, Roberto Hernandez-Rauda
    Toxicology Reports.2020; 7: 1157.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk, white cheese, kashar and butter from Sakarya, Turkey
    Food Science and Technology.2019; 39( suppl 1): 190.     CrossRef
Comparison of Four Serological Tests for Detecting Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus after Vaccination in Children
Go Woon Cha, Jung Eun Cho, Young Ran Ju, Young-Jin Hong, Myung Guk Han, Won-Ja Lee, Eui Yul Choi, Young Eui Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):286-291.   Published online October 31, 2014
  • 3,092 View
  • 21 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV.
The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests.
All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children.
These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered.


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    Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Narayan Gyawali, Deborah J Mills, Christine Mills, Leon E Hugo, Gregor J Devine, Colleen L Lau
    Journal of Travel Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Kiran Bala Sharma, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
    Molecular Aspects of Medicine.2021; 81: 100994.     CrossRef
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    The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygi.2017; 97(2): 369.     CrossRef
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    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(1): e0147841.     CrossRef
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    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(5): e0127313.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2015; 37: 19.     CrossRef
Review Article
Travel-Associated Chikungunya Cases in South Korea during 2009–2010
Go Woon Cha, Jung Eun Cho, Eun Ju Lee, Young Ran Ju, Myung Guk Han, Chan Park, Young Eui Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):170-175.   Published online June 30, 2013
  • 2,900 View
  • 13 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Chikungunya (CHIK) has been classified as a communicable disease group IV in South Korea since late 2010. Based on this, we investigated the extent of imported cases of CHIK in dengue-suspected individuals returning from dengue-endemic regions.
A total of 486 dengue-suspected serum samples were screened for CHIK by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Further RT-PCR-positive samples were used for the viral culture, and CHIK was subsequently confirmed by sequence analysis of the culture samples.
Five out of 107 dengue-positive samples were found to be positive for CHIK and 15 out of 379 dengue-negative samples were found to be positive for CHIK by immunoglobulin M ELISA. Further, a CHIK virus was isolated from one of the two RT-PCR-positive sera by cell culture and confirmed by sequence analysis.
The present study documents the first evidence of travel-associated CHIK infection in South Korea. Considering the intense international traffic between countries, our finding emphasizes the urgent need for active patient and vector surveillance for timely response to reduce the introduction of CHIK in Korea.


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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives