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Original Articles
Genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of SARS-CoV-2 among the Bhutanese population during the pandemic
Tshering Dorji, Kunzang Dorji, Tandin Wangchuk, Tshering Pelki, Sonam Gyeltshen
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(6):494-507.   Published online December 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0209
  • 1,664 View
  • 54 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by a dynamic virus, has had a profound global impact. Despite declining global COVID-19 cases and mortality rates, the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants remains a major concern. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 within the Bhutanese population during the pandemic. The primary aim was to elucidate the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in Bhutan, with a particular focus on genetic variations and lineage dynamics. Methods: Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 collected from Bhutan between May 2020 and February 2023 (n=135) were retrieved from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Database. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 variants in Bhutan were predominantly classified within the Nextstrain clade 20A (31.1%), followed by clade 21L (20%) and clade 22D (15.6%). We identified 26 Pangolin lineages with variations in their spatial and temporal distribution. Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor as February 15, 2020, with a substitution rate of 0.97×10–3 substitutions per site per year. Notably, the spike glycoprotein displayed the highest mutation frequency among major viral proteins, with 116 distinct mutations, including D614G. The Bhutanese isolates also featured mutations such as E484K, K417N, and S477N in the spike protein, which have implications for altered viral properties. Conclusion: This is the first study to describe the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Bhutan during the pandemic, and this data can inform public health policies and strategies for preventing future outbreaks in Bhutan.
Risk factors for transmission in a COVID-19 cluster infection in a high school in the Republic of Korea
Jin-Hwan Jeon, Su Jin Kang, Se-Jin Jeong, Hyeon-Cheol Jang, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Eun Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(4):252-262.   Published online July 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0125
  • 3,812 View
  • 198 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to examine the scale, characteristics, risk factors, and modes of transmission in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak at a high school in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Methods
An epidemiological survey was conducted of 1,118 confirmed cases and close contacts from a COVID-19 outbreak at an educational facility starting on May 31, 2021. In-depth interviews, online questionnaires, flow evaluations, and CCTV analyses were used to devise infection prevention measures. Behavioral and spatial risk factors were identified, and statistical significance was tested.
Results
Among 3rd-year students, there were 33 confirmed COVID-19 cases (9.6%). Students who used a study room in the annex building showed a statistically significant 4.3-fold elevation in their relative risk for infection compared to those who did not use the study room. Moreover, CCTV facial recognition analysis confirmed that 17.8% of 3rd-year students did not wear masks and had the lowest percentage of mask-wearers by grade. The air epidemiological survey conducted in the study room in the annex, which met the 3 criteria for a closed space, confirmed that there was only 10% natural ventilation due to the poor ventilation system.
Conclusion
To prevent and manage the spread of COVID-19 in educational facilities, advance measures that consider the size, operation, and resources of each school are crucial. In addition, various survey methodologies should be used in future studies to quickly analyze a wider range of data that can inform an evidence-based quarantine response.

Citations

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  • Detection of a cluster of Omicron's BA.4 sublineage in Northern Senegal and identification of the first XAS recombinant variant in Senegal
    Martin Faye, Modeste Name Faye, Babacar Ndiaye, Moussa Moïse Diagne, Safietou Sankhe, Ndeye Marième Top, Amadou Diallo, Cheikh Loucoubar, Ndongo Dia, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
    Virus Research.2024; 339: 199259.     CrossRef
Results of contact tracing for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sub-lineages (BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.75) and the household secondary attack risk
Mi Yu, Sang-Eun Lee, Hye Young Lee, Hye-jin Kim, Yeong-Jun Song, Jian Jeong, Ae Kyung Park, Il-Hwan Kim, Eun-jin Kim, Young-Joon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(3):173-179.   Published online June 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0285
  • 1,701 View
  • 67 Download
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to assess the contact tracing outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sub-lineages BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.75 within Republic of Korea, and to generate foundational data for responding to future novel variants.
Methods
We conducted investigations and contact tracing for 79 confirmed BA.4 cases, 396 confirmed BA.5 cases, and 152 confirmed BA.2.75 cases. These cases were identified through random sampling of both domestically confirmed and imported cases, with the goal of evaluating the pattern of occurrence and transmissibility.
Results
We detected 79 instances of Omicron sub-lineage BA.4 across a span of 46 days, 396 instances of Omicron sub-lineage BA.5 in 46 days, and 152 instances of Omicron sub-lineage BA.2.75 over 62 days. One patient with severe illness was confirmed among the BA.5 cases; however, there were no reports of severe illness in the confirmed BA.4 and BA.2.75 cases. The secondary attack risk among household contacts were 19.6% for BA.4, 27.8% for BA.5, and 24.3% for BA.2.75. No statistically significant difference was found between the Omicron sub-lineages.
Conclusion
BA.2.75 did not demonstrate a higher tendency for transmissibility, disease severity, or secondary attack risk within households when compared to BA.4 and BA.5. We will continue to monitor major SARS-CoV-2 variants, and we plan to enhance the disease control and response systems.

Citations

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  • Replication kinetics and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant sublineages recovered in the Republic of Korea
    Jeong-Min Kim, Dongju Kim, Jee Eun Rhee, Cheon Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2024; 15(3): 260.     CrossRef
Clinical epidemiological applicability of real-time polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19
Geehyuk Kim, Jun-Kyu Kang, Jungho Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Jin Gwack
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):252-262.   Published online July 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0135
  • 3,524 View
  • 163 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Real-time polymerase chain reaction is currently used as a confirmatory test for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The test results are interpreted as positive, negative, or inconclusive, and are used only for a qualitative classification of patients. However, the test results can be quantitated using threshold count (Ct) values to determine the amount of virus present in the sample. Therefore, this study investigated the diagnostic usefulness of Ct results through various quantitative analyzes, along with an analysis of clinical and epidemiological characteristics.
Methods
Clinical and epidemiological data from 4,642 COVID-19 patients in April 2021 were analyzed, including the Ct values of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), envelope (E), and nucleocapsid (N) genes. Clinical and epidemiological data (sex, age, underlying diseases, and early symptoms) were collected through a structured questionnaire. A correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between variables.
Results
All 3 genes showed statistically significant relationships with symptoms and severity levels. The Ct values of the RdRp gene decreased as the severity of the patients increased. Moreover, statistical significance was observed for the presence of underlying diseases and dyspnea.
Conclusion
Ct values were found to be related to patients’ clinical and epidemiological characteristics. In particular, since these factors are closely related to symptoms and severity, Ct values can be used as primary data for predicting patients’ disease prognosis despite the limitations of this method. Conducting follow-up studies to validate this approach might enable using the data from this study to establish policies for preventing COVID-19 infection and spread.
Review Article
Review of the early reports of the epidemiological characteristics of the B.1.1.7 variant of SARS-CoV-2 and its spread worldwide
Yeonju Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Donghyok Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):139-148.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0037
  • 6,828 View
  • 160 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The variant B.1.1.7 of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the RNA virus causing the pandemic more than a year worldwide, was reported from United Kingdom (UK) in late December 2020. It was reported that mortality increases by 65% and transmissibility increases by 70%, which may result in an increase of reproduction number to 1.13−1.55 from 0.75−0.85. To analyze the global increasing trend of the variant B.1.1.7, we extracted results of B.1.1.7 from GISAID on May 11 and May 12, 2021, and conducted a doseresponse regression. It took 47 days to reach 20% and 121 days to reach 50% among the sequence submitted from UK. In Korea, cases of B.1.1.7 have increased since the first report of three cases on December 28, 2020. Positive rate of B.1.1.7 in Korea was 21.6% in the week from May 9 to May 15, 2021. Detection rate of the variants is expected to increase further and new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are emerging, so a close monitoring and control would be maintained for months.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mutations in SARS-CoV-2: Insights on structure, variants, vaccines, and biomedical interventions
    Ahmed I. Abulsoud, Hussein M. El-Husseiny, Ahmed A. El-Husseiny, Hesham A. El-Mahdy, Ahmed Ismail, Samy Y. Elkhawaga, Emad Gamil Khidr, Doaa Fathi, Eman A. Mady, Agnieszka Najda, Mohammad Algahtani, Abdulrahman Theyab, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Ashraf Albrakati
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2023; 157: 113977.     CrossRef
  • Structural implications of SARS-CoV-2 Surface Glycoprotein N501Y mutation within receptor-binding domain [499-505] – computational analysis of the most frequent Asn501 polar uncharged amino acid mutations
    Done Stojanov
    Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 Infection among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Individuals in a Large Healthcare Organization from New Jersey
    José R. Mediavilla, Tara Lozy, Annie Lee, Justine Kim, Veronica W. Kan, Elizabeth Titova, Ashish Amin, Michael C. Zody, André Corvelo, Dayna M. Oschwald, Amy Baldwin, Samantha Fennessey, Jerry M. Zuckerman, Thomas Kirn, Liang Chen, Yanan Zhao, Kar Fai Cho
    Viruses.2023; 15(8): 1699.     CrossRef
  • Incidence Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 Variants in the Ulsan Area, Korea, Using PowerChek SARS-CoV-2 S-gene Mutation Detection Kit: A Pilot Study
    Sang Hyuk Park, Hyun-Ki Kim, Hang Kang, Jung Heon Kim, Jaeseung Lee, Ji-Hun Lim, Seon-Ho Lee, Joseph Jeong
    Annals of Laboratory Medicine.2022; 42(3): 363.     CrossRef
  • Biological Properties of SARS-CoV-2 Variants: Epidemiological Impact and Clinical Consequences
    Reem Hoteit, Hadi M. Yassine
    Vaccines.2022; 10(6): 919.     CrossRef
  • Virtual recruitment and participant engagement for substance use research during a pandemic
    Carolin C. Hoeflich, Anna Wang, Ayodeji Otufowora, Linda B. Cottler, Catherine W. Striley
    Current Opinion in Psychiatry.2022; 35(4): 252.     CrossRef
  • Display of receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein variants on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface
    Hongguan Xing, Liyan Zhu, Pingping Wang, Guoping Zhao, Zhihua Zhou, Yi Yang, Hong Zou, Xing Yan
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in variants of concern impair the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 detection by rapid antigen tests
    Ibrahim T. Hagag, Krzysztof Pyrc, Saskia Weber, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Martin H. Groschup, Markus Keller
    Frontiers in Virology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Disease Severity and Clinical Outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern
    Lixin Lin, Ying Liu, Xiujuan Tang, Daihai He
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Epidemiological, imaging, laboratory, and clinical characteristics and factors related to mortality in patients with COVID-19: a single-center study
Zohreh Azarkar, Hamid Salehiniya, Toba Kazemi, Hamid Abbaszadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):169-176.   Published online May 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0012
  • 5,986 View
  • 124 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel pandemic. Considerable differences in disease severity and the mortality rate have been observed in different parts of the world. The present study investigated the characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Iran.
Methods
We established a retrospective cohort to study hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran. Epidemiological, imaging, laboratory, and clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded from medical documents. The chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. A p<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Results
In total, 364 cases (207 males and 157 females) were analyzed. The most common symptoms were cough, fever, and dyspnea. Multifocal bilateral ground-glass opacities with peripheral distribution were the predominant imaging finding. The mean age of patients was 54.28±18.81 years. The mean age of patients who died was 71.50±14.60 years. The mortality rate was 17.6%. The total proportion of patients with a comorbidity was 47.5%, and 84.4% of patients who died had a comorbidity. Sex, history of diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were not significantly associated with mortality (p>0.05). However, mortality showed significant relationships with body mass index; age; history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), pulmonary disease, and cancer; and abnormal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings (p<0.05 for all). Cancer had the highest odds ratio.
Conclusion
Comorbidities (especially cancer, CKD, and CVA), severe obesity, old age, and abnormal HRCT findings affected the health outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Obesity as a Risk Factor for Complications and Mortality in Individuals with SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review
    Marielle Priscila de Paula Silva-Lalucci, Déborah Cristina de Souza Marques, Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
    Nutrients.2024; 16(4): 543.     CrossRef
  • Effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with cancer on mortality, ICU admission and incidence: a systematic review with meta-analysis involving 709,908 participants and 31,732 cancer patients
    Mehmet Emin Arayici, Nazlican Kipcak, Ufuktan Kayacik, Cansu Kelbat, Deniz Keskin, Muhammed Emin Kilicarslan, Ahmet Veli Kilinc, Sumeyye Kirgoz, Anil Kirilmaz, Melih Alihan Kizilkaya, Irem Gaye Kizmaz, Enes Berkin Kocak, Enver Kochan, Begum Kocpinar, Fatm
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.2023; 149(7): 2915.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors Associated with Severity and Death from COVID-19 in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study
    Ahmad Mehri, Sahar Sotoodeh Ghorbani, Kosar Farhadi-Babadi, Elham Rahimi, Zahra Barati, Niloufar Taherpour, Neda Izadi, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Yaser Mokhayeri, Arash Seifi, Saeid Fallah, Rezvan Feyzi, Koorosh Etemed, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari
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    Neurological Sciences.2022; 43(7): 4049.     CrossRef
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    Hamid Salehiniya, Sare Hatamian, Hamid Abbaszadeh
    Health Science Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Lamiaa A Fathalla, Lamyaa M Kamal, Omina Salaheldin, Mahmoud A Khalil, Mahmoud M Kamel, Hagar H Fahim, Youssef AS Abdel-Moneim, Jawaher A Abdulhakim, Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Yomna M El-Meligui
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  • Obesity and Infection: What Have We Learned From the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Emilia Vassilopoulou, Roxana Silvia Bumbacea, Aikaterini Konstantina Pappa, Athanasios N. Papadopoulos, Dragos Bumbacea
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
A Healthcare-Associated Outbreak of HCV Genotype 2a at a Clinic in Seoul
Siwon Choi, Hyerim Lee, Hyungmin Lee, Yoon-Seok Chung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):3-12.   Published online February 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.1.02
  • 5,902 View
  • 246 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

An epidemiological investigation was conducted into a hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak at an outpatients clinic in Seoul (2011–2012). The aim of the study was to analyze the scale of infection, identify the source of infection, and route of transmission to prevent hepatitis C transmission in the future.

Methods

A retrospective study of the outpatients and health care workers (n = 7,285) in the target outpatient clinic during 2011–2012 was conducted. The history of the study population infection with hepatitis C, electronic medical records, field visits, and health care worker interviews were examined for the period between March 1st, 2006 and March 25th, 2016. The blood samples were collected and tested for anti-HCV antibodies, HCV RNA and HCV gene in 2016.

Results

The rate of anti-HCV positive results was 4.4% in the study population. The risk factors associated with an anti-HCV positive result were ≥ 10 clinic visits, and receiving an invasive procedure including a nerve block and a block of the peripheral branch of the spinal nerve (p < 0.05). There were 112 HCV RNA positive cases out of 320 anti-HCV positive test result cases, amongst which 100 cases had the dominant HCV genotype 2a which formed either 1 cluster (n = 56) or 2 clusters (n = 25). This result indicated exposure to a high-association infection source.

Conclusion

Anti-HCV antibodies and genotypic analysis showed an epidemiological association between the outbreak of HCV and invasive procedures performed (2011–2012) at an outpatients clinic in Seoul.

Short Communications
Coronavirus Disease-19: The First 7,755 Cases in the Republic of Korea
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(2):85-90.   Published online April 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.2.05
Correction in: Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2020;11(3):146
  • 22,018 View
  • 703 Download
  • 84 Web of Science
  • 85 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

We report the first 7,755 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Korea as of March 12th, 2020. A total of 66 deaths have been recorded, giving a case fatality proportion of 0.9%. Older people, and those with comorbidities were at a higher risk of a fatal outcome. The highest number of cases of COVID-19 were in Daegu, followed by Gyeongbuk. This summary may help to understand the disease dynamics in the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreaks, and may therefore, guide future public health measures.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Hyeyeon Moon, Sunghwan Suh, Mi Kyoung Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jeong-Yeon Seon, Sunjea Kim, Min Kyoung Lim, In-Hwan Oh
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    Lindsay S. McAlpine, Arman Fesharaki-Zadeh, Serena Spudich
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    Gun Ja Jang, Ginam Jang, Sangjin Ko
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Coronavirus Disease-19: Summary of 2,370 Contact Investigations of the First 30 Cases in the Republic of Korea
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(2):81-84.   Published online April 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.2.04
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AbstractAbstract PDF

Between January 24th and March 10th, a total of 2,370 individuals had contact with the first 30 cases of COVID-19. There were 13 individuals who contracted COVID-19 resulting in a secondary attack rate of 0.55% (95% CI 0.31–0.96). There were 119 household contacts, of which 9 individuals developed COVID-19 resulting in a secondary attack rate of 7.56% (95% CI 3.7–14.26).

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Original Articles
Epidemiological Characterization of Imported Systemic Mycoses Occurred in Korea
Seung-Hak Cho, Young-Bin Yu, Je-Seop Park, Keun-Dol Yook, Young-Kwon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(5):255-260.   Published online October 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.5.07
  • 10,960 View
  • 125 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Imported systemic mycoses is a severe fungal infection that can cause diseases in healthy people. However, there is a serious lack of epidemiological data about imported systemic mycoses. Therefore, an epidemiological characterization of imported systemic mycoses in Korea was performed.

Methods

We collected health insurance data between 2008 and 2012 from the Health Insurance Corporation and analyzed the data to determine the prevalence and treatment management of imported systemic mycoses.

Results

The prevalence of imported systemic mycoses between 2008 and 2012 increased slowly by 0.49/100,000 to 0.53/100,000 persons. The prevalence of coccidioidomycosis increased from 0.28/100,000 in 2008 to 0.36/100,000 persons in 2012. A mean of 229.6 cases occurred each year. Children and the elderly showed higher prevalence than adults in the 20- to 59-year-old age group. The rate of infection according to region ranged from 0.18/100,000 persons in Ulsan, to 0.59/100,000 persons in Gyeonggi. The prevalence in females was higher than that in males. Inpatient treatment was 3.3% (38 cases), with 96.7% treated as outpatients. Hospitalizations cost 272.7 million won and outpatient treatments cost 111.7 million won. The treatment cost for coccidioidomycosis from 2008 to 2012 was 330.9 million won, with personal charges of 79.2 million won and insurance charges of 251.7 million won. Most of the expenses for the coccidioidomycosis treatment were for inpatient treatment.

Conclusion

The results in this study may be a useful resource for determining the changes in the trend of imported systemic mycoses.

Citations

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  • Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Decompensation of Cirrhosis: Epidemiology, Predictors of 28-Day Mortality, and Outcomes
    Yu Wang, Chen Li, Haibin Su, Jinhua Hu
    Indian Journal of Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The clinical laboratory evolution in coccidioidomycosis detection: Future perspectives
    José María Gastélum-Cano, Mitzuko Dautt-Castro, Alfonso García-Galaz, Katya Felix-Murray, Antonio Rascón-Careaga, Manuel A. Cano-Rangel, María A. Islas-Osuna
    Journal of Medical Mycology.2021; 31(3): 101159.     CrossRef
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    Hongliang Zhang, Aiqun Zhu
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    María José Buitrago, M. Teresa Martín-Gómez
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Epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Larestan and Ghiro-Karzin Counties, Southwest of Iran
Nasiri Zahra, Keshavarzi Davood, Akbari Morteza, Soltani Zahra
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):81-85.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.07
  • 5,895 View
  • 35 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. The Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) form of the disease is fatal if not treated in most cases. This study examined the epidemiological aspects of VL in two southwest counties of Iran.

Methods

This was a retrospective study of hospitalized patients with a laboratory confirmation of VL from Larestan and Ghiro-Karzin Counties.

Results

For Larestan county, a decline in the incidence of VL has been observed from 2004 to 2015. Significantly more males (n = 14) than females (n = 6) were infected with VL in this county (p < 0.05), >95% of cases in children under 5 years of age. In Ghiro-Karzin county, the results were similar to a decline in VL infection from 2004 to 2015, and slightly more males (n = 14) than females (n = 11). Similarly, the majority of the patients infected with VL were children under 5 years old (88%).

Conclusion

The results from this study indicate that although the incidence of VL infection has reduced over time, VL was more prevalent in boys under 5 years old, suggesting that more attention to controlling the parasite and its vector are required.

Citations

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  • Efficacy and safety of single-dose liposomal amphotericin B in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh: a real-life experience
    Md. Rezaul Ekram, Mohammad Robed Amin, Mohammad Jahid Hasan, Md. Abdullah Saeed Khan, Rajib Nath, Pranab Kumar Mallik, Alex Lister, Monjur Rahman
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Surveillance of Bacillus cereus Isolates in Korea from 2012 to 2014
Su-Mi Jung, Nan-Ok Kim, Injun Cha, Hae-young Na, Gyung Tae Chung, Hyo Sun Kawk, Sahyun Hong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(1):71-77.   Published online February 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.1.10
  • 4,504 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To investigate the prevalence and toxin production characteristics of non-emetic and emetic Bacillus cereus strains isolated via the laboratory surveillance system in Korea.

Methods

A total of 667 B. cereus strains were collected by the Korea National Research Institute of Health laboratory surveillance system from 2012 to 2014. The collected strains were analyzed by geographical region, season, patient age, and patient sex. Additionally, the prevalence rates of enterotoxin and emetic toxin genes were evaluated.

Results

The isolation rate of B. cereus strains increased during the summer, but the isolation rate was evenly distributed among patient age groups. Emetic toxin was produced by 20.2% of the isolated strains. The prevalence rates of five enterotoxin genes (entFM, nheA, cytK2, hblC, and bceT) were 85.0, 78.6, 44.5, 36.6, and 29.7%, respectively, among non-emetic strains and 77.8, 59.3, 17.8, 11.9 and 12.6%, respectively, among emetic strains. Thus, the prevalence rates of all five enterotoxin genes were lower in emetic B. cereus.

Conclusion

The prevalence of enterotoxin genes differed between non-emetic and emetic B. cereus strains. Among emetic B. cereus strains, the prevalence rates of two enterotoxin genes (cytK2 and hblC) were lower than those among the non-emetic strains. In both the emetic and non-emetic strains isolated in Korea, nheA and entFM were the most prevalent enterotoxin genes.

Citations

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  • Toxigenic diversity of Bacillus cereus isolated from fresh produce and effects of various factors on the growth and the cytotoxicity of B. cereus
    Areum Han, Jae-Hyun Yoon, Yun-Sun Choi, Yujin Bong, Gyusuck Jung, Sung-Kwon Moon, Sun-Young Lee
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    Başak Gökçe ÇÖL, Harun AKSU
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    Nari Lee, Myo-Deok Kim, Min-Cheol Lim
    Indian Journal of Microbiology.2021; 61(1): 66.     CrossRef
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Epidemiology and Inequality in the Incidence and Mortality of Nasopharynx Cancer in Asia
Neda Mahdavifar, Mahshid Ghoncheh, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Bahman Khosravi, Hamid Salehiniya
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(6):360-372.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.11.002
  • 4,261 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
One of the most common head and neck cancers is nasopharynx cancer. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study and better planning. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asia in 2012.
Methods
The aim of this ecologic study was to assess the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its components, which include the following: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used the correlation bivariate method for the assessment. Statistical significance was assumed if p < 0.05. All reported p values are two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.).
Results
A total of 68,272 cases (males, 71.02%; females, 28.97%; sex ratio, 2.45) and 40,530 mortalities (males, 71.63%; females, 28.36%; sex ratio, 2.52) were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The five countries with the highest ASIR of nasopharynx cancer were Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brunei, and the five countries with the highest ASMR were Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei. The correlation between HDI and ASIR was 0.097 (p = 0.520) [0.105 in men (p = 0.488) and 0.119 in women (p = 0.901)]. The correlation between HDI and ASMR was –0.102 (p = 0.502) [–0.072 in men (p = 0.633) and –0.224 in women (p = 0.134)].
Conclusion
Nasopharynx cancer is native to Southeast Asia. The highest incidence and mortality rates are found in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brunei. No significant relation was found between the standardized incidence and mortality rates of nasopharynx cancer and the HDI components. Further studies are recommended in Southeast Asian countries in order to find the etiology of cancer, as well as its diagnosis and treatment.

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Epidemiological and Clinical Features of People with Malta Fever in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Roja Nikaeen, Ghasem Abedi, Motahareh Kheradmand, Saeid Safiri
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):157-167.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Numerous studies have reported the epidemiological and clinical features of Malta fever incidence in Iran. Review and synthesis of the related literature through meta-analysis can provide an appropriate measurement for aforementioned indices. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of people with Malta fever in Iran.
Methods
The required documents were obtained through searching national and international databases. In each study, standard deviation of the indices was calculated using binomial distribution formulas. Finally, the heterogeneity index was determined between studies using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests.
Results
Combining the results of 47 articles in the meta-analysis indicated that 57.6% (55.02–60.1%) and 42.3% (49.8–44.9%) of the patients were male and female, respectively. Most of the patients lived in rural areas; 68.4% (63.6–73.2%) compared to 31.4% (26.7–36.3%). In addition, 20.8% (17.4–24.2%) of the patients were ranchers and farmers, 16.9% (14.5–19.4%) were students, and 31.6% (27–36.2%) were housewives. Of the patients studies, 50.5% (35.6–65.2%) experienced contact with animals and 57.1% (46.4–67.9%) used unpasteurized dairy products. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among 65.7% (53.7–77.8%) and 55.3% (44.4–66.2%), respectively.
Conclusion
The present study revealed that the frequency of male patients with brucellosis was considerably more than that of female patients. The number of patients with Malta fever in rural areas was significantly more than in urban areas. High-risk behavior, unprotected contact with animals, and using unpasteurized dairy products were among the most significant factors affecting Malta fever incidence in Iran. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among most of the patients with Malta fever.

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Brief Report
Comparison of the Epidemiological Aspects of Imported Dengue Cases between Korea and Japan, 2006–2010
Young Eui Jeong, Won-Chang Lee, Jung Eun Cho, Myung-Guk Han, Won-Ja Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(1):71-74.   Published online February 28, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.12.001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To compare the epidemiological characteristics of dengue cases imported by travelers or immigration in both Korea and Japan, we determined dengue incidence and related risk factors. During 2006–2010, 367 and 589 imported dengue cases were reported in Korea and Japan, respectively. In Korea, the presumptive origins for the dengue infections were Southeast Asia (82.6%), Southern Asia (13.9%), Eastern Asia (1.1%), South America (0.3%), Central America (0.3%), Africa (0.3%), and other countries (1.6%). In Japan, the origins of the infections were Southeast Asia (69.8%), Southern Asia (20.0%), Eastern Asia (1.7%), South America (2.5%), Central America (1.2%), Africa (1.2%), Oceania (2.4%), and other countries (1.2%). In both countries, more dengue cases were reported for men than for women (p < 0.01), and those aged 20–30 years accounted for > 60% of the total cases. The frequency of imported cases in summer and autumn (∼70% of total cases) was similar in both countries. This study demonstrates that there is a similar pattern of imported dengue cases in Korea and Japan. Therefore, there is a risk of an autochthonous dengue outbreak in Korea, as indicated by the recent outbreak in Japan in 2014.

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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives