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Spatiotemporal analysis of environmental and physiographic factors related to malaria in Bareilly district, India
Shikhar Chaudhary, Biju Soman
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):123-132.   Published online March 31, 2022
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  • 74 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal clustering of reported malaria cases and to study the effects of various environmental and physiographic factors on malaria incidence in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: Malaria surveillance data were collected from the state health department and cleaned into an analyzable format. These data were analyzed along with meteorological, physiographic, and 2019 population data, which were obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department, National Aeronautics and Space Administration web portal, the Bhuvan platform of the Indian Space Research Organization, and the 2011 Census of India. Results: In total, 46,717 malaria cases were reported in Bareilly district in 2019, of which 25.99% were Plasmodium vivax cases and 74.01% were P. falciparum cases. The reported malaria cases in the district showed clustering, with significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I value=0.63), and space-time clustering (p<0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between monthly malaria incidence and the monthly mean temperature (with a lag of 1−2 months) and rainfall (with a lag of 1 month). A significant negative correlation was detected between the elevation of blocks (i.e., intermediate-level administrative districts) and annual malaria reporting. Conclusion: The presence of space-time clustering of malaria cases and its correlation with meteorological and physiographic factors indicate that routine spatial analysis of the surveillance data could help control and manage malaria outbreaks in the district.
The Prevalence of CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphisms in Malaria-endemic Population of Timor in East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia
Linawati Hananta, Indwiani Astuti, Ahmad Hamim Sadewa, Josephine Alice, Jontari Hutagalung, Mustofa
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):192-196.   Published online August 31, 2018
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  • 43 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans that has the potential to modify the pharmacological and toxicological responses to clinically important drugs such as antimalarial artemisinin and its derivatives. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Timor malaria endemic area, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia where Artemisin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated malaria.


A total of 109 healthy subjects were participated in this study. CYP2B6*4, *6 and *9 polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR-RFLP to confirm the SNPs prevalence of 516G>T and 785A>G in exon 4 and 5.


There were 96 subjects included in the analysis. In the exon 4 of CYP2B6 516G>T, the frequency of the T mutation was 37.5% (39/96), and the wildtype 27.1% (26/96). In the exon 5, CYP2B6 785A>G mutant was detected in 29.2% (28/96) of individuals, and the wildtype allele in 35.4% (34/96). The frequency of CYP2B6*9 (516G>T), CYP2B6*4 (785A>G) and CYP2B6*6 (516G>T and 785A>G) were 40.6%, 29.2% and 22.9%, respectively. The prevalence of these CYP2B6 gene polymorphisms in Timorian ethnic were higher than that in Malay, Han Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian populations.


The prevalence of these CYP2B6 516G>T and 785A>G polymorphisms in Timorian ethnic is higher than that in other populations. These polymorphisms may affect the metabolism of artemisinin and its derivatives.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Leveraging Mann–Whitney U test on large-scale genetic variation data for analysing malaria genetic markers
    Kah Yee Tai, Jasbir Dhaliwal, Vinod Balasubramaniam
    Malaria Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Frequency of CYP2B6 Alleles in Major Iranian Ethnicities, Affecting Response to Efavirenz
    Parham Mardi, Bahareh Tavakoli-Far, Samira Sheibani Nia, Roshanak Jazayeri, Massoud Houshmand, Nadeem Sheikh
    Genetics Research.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Phenotyping Study of Cyclophosphamide 4-Hydroxylation in Malay Cancer Patients
    Yesi Ihdina Fityatal Hasanah, Yahdiana Harahap, Denni Joko Purwanto
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy.2021; Volume 15: 305.     CrossRef
  • CYP2B6 Functional Variability in Drug Metabolism and Exposure Across Populations—Implication for Drug Safety, Dosing, and Individualized Therapy
    Immaculate M. Langmia, Katja S. Just, Sabrina Yamoune, Jürgen Brockmöller, Collen Masimirembwa, Julia C. Stingl
    Frontiers in Genetics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The correlation between the level of 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid, CYP2B6 polymorphisms, and hematuria occurrences after cyclophosphamide administration and its bioanalytical methods: A systematic review
    Yahdiana Harahap, Farhan Nurahman, Denni Joko Purwanto, Arry Yanuar
    Heliyon.2021; 7(10): e08126.     CrossRef
  • Frequencies of CYP2B6∗4,∗5, and ∗6 Alleles within an Iranian Population (Mazandaran)
    Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Elaheh Hosseini, Shokoufeh Fazelnia, Faramarz Ghasemian-Sorbeni, Sara Madahian, Mohammad Reza Shiran, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad
    Genetics Research.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • In vitro and in silico Determination of the Interaction of Artemisinin with Human Serum Albumin
    S. Ginosyan, H. Grabski, S. Tiratsuyan
    Molecular Biology.2020; 54(4): 586.     CrossRef
  • A Review of Danshen Combined with Clopidogrel in the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease
    Zhaojian Zhang, Yu Wang, Wangxiao Tan, Siwei Wang, Jinghua Liu, Xiao Liu, Xiaoying Wang, Xiumei Gao
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medic.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Korea Estimated with a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Seungyoung Oh, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Shin Hyeong Cho, Won Ja Lee, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(4):192-198.   Published online December 31, 2012
  • 2,441 View
  • 19 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The spatial and temporal correlations were estimated to determine Plasmodium vivax malarial transmission pattern in Korea from 2001–2011 with the hierarchical generalized linear model.
Malaria cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the incidence was estimated according to age, sex, and year by the hierarchical generalized linear model. Spatial and temporal correlation was estimated and the best model was selected from nine models. Results were presented as diseases map according to age and sex.
The incidence according to age was highest in the 20–25-year-old group (244.52 infections/100,000). Mean ages of infected males and females were 31.0 years and 45.3 years with incidences 7.8 infections/100,000 and 7.1 infections/100,000 after estimation. The mean month for infection was mid-July with incidence 10.4 infections/100,000. The best-fit model showed that there was a spatial and temporal correlation in the malarial transmission. Incidence was very low or negligible in areas distant from the demilitarized zone between Republic of Korea and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) if the 20–29-year-old male group was omitted in the diseases map.
Malarial transmission in a region in Korea was influenced by the incidence in adjacent regions in recent years. Since malaria in Korea mainly originates from mosquitoes from North Korea, there will be continuous decrease if there is no further outbreak in North Korea.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Source separation in municipal solid waste management: Practical means to its success in Asian cities
    Premakumara Jagath Dickella Gamaralalage, Sadhan Kumar Ghosh, Kazunobu Onogawa
    Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sus.2022; 40(3): 360.     CrossRef
  • Spatial connectivity in mosquito-borne disease models: a systematic review of methods and assumptions
    Sophie A. Lee, Christopher I. Jarvis, W. John Edmunds, Theodoros Economou, Rachel Lowe
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface.2021; 18(178): 20210096.     CrossRef
  • Effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission dynamics: A mathematical modeling approach
    Jung Eun Kim, Yongin Choi, Chang Hyeong Lee
    Applied Mathematics and Computation.2019; 347: 616.     CrossRef
  • Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea
    Sehyeong Kim, Youngho Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(7): 1250.     CrossRef
  • Is it necessary to take anthelmintics every year in Korea?
    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2018; 61(3): 198.     CrossRef
  • Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks
    Zhujie Chu, Wenna Wang, Bairong Wang, Jun Zhuang
    Sustainability.2016; 8(2): 152.     CrossRef
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs for common parasitic diseases in Korea
    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(6): 513.     CrossRef
  • Are There Spatial and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence Distribution of Scrub Typhus in Korea?
    Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Sun Huh
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(1): 39.     CrossRef
  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(3): 125.     CrossRef
  • A New Statistical Approach to Analyze Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(4): 191.     CrossRef
Optimal Control Strategy of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Transmission in Korea
Byul Nim Kim, Kyeongah Nah, Chaeshin Chu, Sang Uk Ryu, Yong Han Kang, Yongkuk Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):128-136.   Published online June 30, 2012
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  • 15 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective To investigate the optimal control strategy for Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in Korea.
A Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission model with optimal control terms using a deterministic system of differential equations is presented, and analyzed mathematically and numerically.
If the cost of reducing the reproduction rate of the mosquito population is more than that of prevention measures to minimize mosquito-human contacts, the control of mosquito-human contacts needs to be taken for a longer time, comparing the other situations. More knowledge about the actual effectiveness and costs of control intervention measures would give more realistic control strategies.
Mathematical model and numerical simulations suggest that the use of mosquito-reduction strategies is more effective than personal protection in some cases but not always.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Numerical Investigation of Malaria Disease Dynamics in Fuzzy Environment
    Fazal Dayan, Dumitru Baleanu, Nauman Ahmed, Jan Awrejcewicz, Muhammad Rafiq, Ali Raza, Muhammad Ozair Ahmad
    Computers, Materials & Continua.2023; 74(2): 2345.     CrossRef
  • New Trends in Fuzzy Modeling Through Numerical Techniques
    M. M. Alqarni, Muhammad Rafiq, Fazal Dayan, Jan Awrejcewicz, Nauman Ahmed, Ali Raza, Muhammad Ozair Ahmad, Witold Pawłowski, Emad E. Mahmoud
    Computers, Materials & Continua.2023; 74(3): 6371.     CrossRef
  • Optimal control analysis of hepatocytic-erythrocytic dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Titus Okello Orwa, Rachel Waema Mbogo, Livingstone Serwadda Luboobi
    Infectious Disease Modelling.2022; 7(1): 82.     CrossRef
  • Effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission dynamics: A mathematical modeling approach
    Jung Eun Kim, Yongin Choi, Chang Hyeong Lee
    Applied Mathematics and Computation.2019; 347: 616.     CrossRef
  • Optimal bed net use for a dengue disease model with mosquito seasonal pattern
    Bruno Buonomo, Rossella Della Marca
    Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Optimal control in epidemiology
    Oluwaseun Sharomi, Tufail Malik
    Annals of Operations Research.2017; 251(1-2): 55.     CrossRef
  • A new analysis of infection dynamics: multi-regions discrete epidemic model with an extended optimal control approach
    Omar Zakary, Mostafa Rachik, Ilias Elmouki
    International Journal of Dynamics and Control.2017; 5(4): 1010.     CrossRef
  • On the analysis of a multi-regions discrete SIR epidemic model: an optimal control approach
    Omar Zakary, Mostafa Rachik, Ilias Elmouki
    International Journal of Dynamics and Control.2017; 5(3): 917.     CrossRef
  • Bifurcation and Sensitivity Analysis of Malaria–Schistosomiasis Co-infection Model
    E. A. Bakare, C. R. Nwozo
    International Journal of Applied and Computational.2017; 3(S1): 971.     CrossRef
  • Effect of awareness programs and travel-blocking operations in the control of HIV/AIDS outbreaks: a multi-domains SIR model
    Omar Zakary, Abdelilah Larrache, Mostafa Rachik, Ilias Elmouki
    Advances in Difference Equations.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transmission Dynamics and Optimal Control of Malaria in Kenya
    Gabriel Otieno, Joseph K. Koske, John M. Mutiso
    Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef
  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(3): 125.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives