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Prevalence, multidrug resistance, and biofilm formation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fish mariculture environments in Cat Ba Island, Vietnam
Kim Cuc Thi Nguyen, Phuc Hung Truong, Hoa Truong Thi, Xuan Tuy Ho, Phu Van Nguyen
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):56-67.   Published online February 19, 2024
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major foodborne pathogen in aquatic animals and a threat to human health worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), and biofilm formation of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from fish mariculture environments in Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. Methods: In total, 150 rearing water samples were collected from 10 fish mariculture farms in winter and summer. A polymerase chain reaction assay was used to identify V. parahaemolyticus, its virulence factors, and ARGs. The antimicrobial resistance patterns and biofilm formation ability of V. parahaemolyticus strains were investigated using the disk diffusion test and a microtiter plate-based crystal violet method, respectively. Results: Thirty-seven V. parahaemolyticus isolates were recovered from 150 samples. The frequencies of the tdh and trh genes among V. parahaemolyticus isolates were 8.1% and 21.6%, respectively. More than 90% of isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol, but over 72% were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Furthermore, 67.57% of isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The presence of ARGs related to gentamicin (aac(3)-IV), tetracycline (tetA) and ciprofloxacin (qnrA) in V. parahaemolyticus isolates was identified. Conversely, no ARGs related to ampicillin or erythromycin resistance were detected. Biofilm formation capacity was detected in significantly more multidrug-resistant isolates (64.9%) than non-multidrug-resistant isolates (18.9%). Conclusion: Mariculture environments are a potential source of antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus and a hotspot for virulence genes and ARGs diffusing to aquatic environments. Thus, the prevention of antibiotic-resistant foodborne vibriosis in aquatic animals and humans requires continuous monitoring.
Prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in southwestern Iran
Nabi Jomehzadeh, Khadijeh Ahmadi, Zahra Rahmani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(6):390-395.   Published online December 1, 2021
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  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was undertaken to evaluate AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli urine isolates and to characterize the frequency of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-encoding genes.
Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the disk diffusion technique. AmpC β-lactamase production was assessed with a phenotypic inhibitor-based method. The presence of 6 pAmpC-encoding cluster genes was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The proportion of antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates ranged from 7.4% to 90.5%, and more than half (51.6%) of the total isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Among the 95 E. coli isolates, 60 (63.2%) were found to be cefoxitin-resistant, but only 14 (14.7%) isolates were confirmed as AmpC β-lactamase-producers. In the PCR assay, pAmpC-encoding genes were found in 15 (15.8%) isolates, and blaDHA was the most prevalent type. However, blaFOX, blaMOX, and blaACC genes were not detected in the isolates.
Our findings contributed valuable information concerning antibiotic resistance, confirmatory phenotypic testing for AmpC production, and pAmpC β-lactamase gene content in E. coli isolates in southwestern Iran. The level of MDR recorded in AmpC-producing strains of this study was worrying; therefore, implementing strong infection control approaches to reduce the MDR burden is recommended.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A review of the mechanisms that confer antibiotic resistance in pathotypes of E. coli
    Sina Nasrollahian, Jay P. Graham, Mehrdad Halaji
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Genes and Severity of Infection and Resistance to Antibiotics
    Sofía Alejandra Fonseca-Martínez, Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Clara Isabel González Rugeles, Libeth Yajaira Criado-Guerrero
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2023; Volume 16: 3707.     CrossRef
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) prevalence in Nepal: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Christina Khadka, Manita Shyaula, Gopiram Syangtan, Shrijana Bista, Reshma Tuladhar, Anjana Singh, Dev Raj Joshi, Lok R. Pokhrel, Prabin Dawadi
    Science of The Total Environment.2023; 901: 166164.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Resistant Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Central China during 2016–2019
    Zui Wang, Qin Lu, Xiaohui Mao, Li Li, Junfeng Dou, Qigai He, Huabin Shao, Qingping Luo
    Animals.2022; 12(22): 3191.     CrossRef
  • Molecular detection and characterization of Shigella spp. harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in children with diarrhea in northwest Iran
    Sahar Sabour, Amir Teimourpour, Jafar Mohammadshahi, Hadi Peeridogaheh, Roghayeh Teimourpour, Taher Azimi, Zahra Hosseinali
    Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-Lactamase gene analysis in Klebsiella Pneumoniae clinical isolates
    Nabi Jomehzadeh, Khadijeh Ahmadi, Hasti Shaabaninejad, Gholamali Eslami
    Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal (BBR.2022; 6(4): 582.     CrossRef
Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Genes and Phylogenetic Groups of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea
Erfaneh Jafari, Saeid Mostaan, Saeid Bouzari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):327-333.   Published online October 22, 2020
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Infectious diarrhea is one of the most common causes of pediatric death worldwide and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the main causes. There are 2 subgroups of EPEC, typical and atypical, based on the presence or absence of bundle forming pili (bfp), of which atypical EPEC is considered less virulent, but not less pathogenic. Antimicrobial resistance towards atypical EPEC among children is growing and is considered a major problem. In this study the pattern of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates was determined.


Using 130 isolates, antibiotic resistance patterns and phenotypes were assessed, and genotypic profiles of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production using disc diffusion and PCR was carried out. Phylogenetic groups were analyzed using quadruplex PCR.


There were 65 E. coli isolates identified as atypical EPEC by PCR, among which the highest antibiotic resistance was towards ampicillin, followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Multidrug resistance was detected in 44.6% of atypical EPEC isolates. Around 33% of isolates were determined to be extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, and in 90% of isolates, genes responsible for ESBL production could be detected. Moreover, the majority of atypical EPEC strains belonged to Group E, followed by Groups B1, B2 and C.


High rates of multidrug resistance and ESBL production among atypical EPEC isolates warrant periodical surveillance studies to select effective antibiotic treatment for patients. It is considered a critical step to manage antibiotic resistance by avoiding unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics.


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  • Phenotypic and molecular characterization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. causing childhood diarrhoea in Awka, South-Eastern Nigeria
    Ifeanyi Emmanuel Nwike, Malachy Chigozie Ugwu, Peter Chika Ejikeugwu, Nonye Treasure Ujam, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha, Charles Okechukwu Esimone
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    Ammar H. Hamed, Ahmed I. Alnazzal
    IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sci.2023; 1262(6): 062019.     CrossRef
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    Ntando W. Alfinete, John Y. Bolukaoto, Lee Heine, Natasha Potgieter, Tobias G. Barnard
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2022; 114: 226.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC, and carbapenemases in Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates
    Mona Shaaban, Soha Lotfy Elshaer, Ola A. Abd El-Rahman
    BMC Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli—A Summary of the Literature
    Anca Delia Mare, Cristina Nicoleta Ciurea, Adrian Man, Bianca Tudor, Valeriu Moldovan, Luminița Decean, Felicia Toma
    Gastroenterology Insights.2021; 12(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine Faeces and Lagoons in Bulgaria
    Lyudmila Dimitrova, Mila Kaleva, Maya M. Zaharieva, Christina Stoykova, Iva Tsvetkova, Maya Angelovska, Yana Ilieva, Vesselin Kussovski, Sevda Naydenska, Hristo Najdenski
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High Prevalence of Class 1 to 3 Integrons Among Multidrug-Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Southwest of Iran
Mohammad Kargar, Zahra Mohammadalipour, Abbas Doosti, Shahrokh Lorzadeh, Alireza Japoni-Nejad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(4):193-198.   Published online August 31, 2014
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  • 44 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Horizontal transfer of integrons is one of the important factors that can contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of integrons among MDR Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool specimens and investigate the associations between the existence of integrons and MDR properties in the southwest of Iran.
There were 164 E. coli strains isolated from January 2012 to June 2012. Fecal specimens identified as E. coli by the conventional methods. Subsequently the antibiotic resistance was assessed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute criteria. The presence of class 1–3 integrons and embedded gene cassettes was verified using specific primers by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay.
Among a total of 164 studied samples, 69 (42.07%) isolates were multidrug resistant. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were present in 78.26% and 76.81% MDR isolates, respectively. For the first time in Iran, class 3 integron was observed in 26.09% MDR isolates. Significant correlations were identified between: class 1 integron and resistance to amikacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and co-trimoxazole; class 2 integron and resistance to aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, cefalexin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol; and class 3 integron and resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin.
Our results indicate that integrons are common among MDR isolates and they can be used as a marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Therefore, due to the possibility of a widespread outbreak of MDR isolates, molecular surveillance and sequencing of the integrons in other parts of the country is recommended.


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  • Prevalence of the Integrons and ESBL Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections, Ardabil, Iran
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    Loandi Richter, Erika M. du Plessis, Stacey Duvenage, Lise Korsten
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  • Detection of Class I and II integrons for the assessment of antibiotic and multidrug resistance amongEscherichia coliisolates from agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines
    Cielo Emar M. Paraoan, Windell L. Rivera, Pierangeli G. Vital
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  • Distribution of Integrons and Phylogenetic Groups among Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Children <5 Years of Age in Delhi, India
    Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V. G. Ramachandran, Sayim Wani, Dheeraj Shah, Khan A. Maroof, Aditi Sharma
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The distribution of carbapenem- and colistin-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria from the Tamil Nadu region in India
    Prasanth Manohar, Thamaraiselvan Shanthini, Ramankannan Ayyanar, Bulent Bozdogan, Aruni Wilson, Ashok J. Tamhankar, Ramesh Nachimuthu, Bruno S. Lopes
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  • Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Patients Are Associated with Class 1 and 2 Integrons
    Hamid Lavakhamseh, Parviz Mohajeri, Samaneh Rouhi, Pegah Shakib, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Afshin Rasani, Majid Mansouri
    Chemotherapy.2016; 61(2): 72.     CrossRef
  • Variability in gene cassette patterns of class 1 and 2 integrons associated with multi drug resistance patterns in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in Tehran-Iran
    Mahdi Mostafa, Seyed Davar Siadat, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Farzam Vaziri, Alireza Japoni-Nejad, Jalil Vand Yousefi, Bahareh Rajaei, Elnaz Harifi Mood, Nayyereh Ebrahim zadeh, Arfa Moshiri, Seyed Alireza Seyed Siamdoust, Mohamad Rahbar
    BMC Microbiology.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection
Monali P. Mishra, Rabindra N. Padhy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(6):347-357.   Published online December 31, 2013
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  • 23 Download
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens.
Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated.
A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria.


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Comparison of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Healthy Poultry and Swine Farm Workers Using Antibiotics in Korea
Seung-Hak Cho, Yeong-Sik Lim, Yeon-Ho Kang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):151-155.   Published online June 30, 2012
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study is to compare the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from faecal samples of workers who often use antibiotics.
A total of 163E coli strains isolated from faecal samples of livestock workers (poultry and swine farm workers) and restaurant workers in the same regions as a control group were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 16 antimicrobial agents.
Most of the tested isolates showed high antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. The isolates showed higher resistance to cephalothin than other antibiotics among the cephems. Among the aminoglycosides, the resistance to gentamicin and tobramycin occurred at higher frequencies compared with resistance to amikacin and netilmicin. Our data indicated that faecal E coli isolates of livestock workers showed higher antibiotic resistances than nonlivestock workers (restaurant workers), especially cephalothin, gentamicin, and tobramycin (p < 0.05). Moreover, the rates of the livestock workers in the association of multidrug resistance were also higher than the rates of the restaurant workers.
This study implies that usage of antibiotics may contribute to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal E coli strains of humans.


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