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Review Article
SARS-CoV-2 in brief: from virus to prevention
Hassan Karami, Zeinab Karimi, Negin Karami
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(6):394-406.   Published online November 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0155
  • 509 View
  • 47 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), ahighly transmissible virus with a likely animal origin, has posed major and unprecedentedchallenges to millions of lives across the affected nations of the world. This outbreak firstoccurred in China, and despite massive regional and global attempts shortly thereafter, itspread to other countries and caused millions of deaths worldwide. This review presents keyinformation about the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease (namely,coronavirus disease 2019) and briefly discusses the origin of the virus. Herein, we also brieflysummarize the strategies used against viral spread and transmission.
Original Articles
A case-control study of acute hepatitis A in South Korea, 2019
Jung Hee Hyun, Ju Young Yoon, Sang Hyuk Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):352-359.   Published online October 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0141
  • 902 View
  • 62 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We aimed to reconfirm the source of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection through epidemiological and genotype investigations of individual cases in a 2019 outbreak in South Korea. Methods: We investigated food intake histories, associations with hepatitis A, and genotypes of HAV in 31 patients with hepatitis aged 20 to 49 years registered in the integrated disease and health management system during December 1–7, 2019 (case group) and in 35 sex- and agematched people without a history of HAV vaccination or infection among patients’ families and colleagues (control group). Results: The consumption of salted clams was a significant factor (odds ratio, 4.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–14.18) in the risk factor analysis of food intake history. HAV genotypes were analyzed in 24 of 31 patients. Type IA and type IIIA were found in 23 and 1 cases, respectively. Conclusion: Salted clams are considered to have been the source of HAV infection at 49 weeks of the HAV outbreak in 2019; this result was consistent with that of a previous epidemiological investigation conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in September 2019. Therefore, monitoring of the production and distribution of salted clams needs to be continued.
Epidemiological characteristics of varicella outbreaks in the Republic of Korea, 2016–2020
Eun-Young Kim, Chungmin Park, Gyehee Lee, Suyeon Jeong, Jeongsuk Song, Dong-Han Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):133-141.   Published online April 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0087
  • 1,460 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We described the trends and epidemiological characteristics of varicella outbreaks from 2016 to 2020 in the Republic of Korea. Methods: We investigated variables such as the outbreak setting, age of patients, vaccination status, and lesion count. The collected data were analyzed with the Cochrane-Armitage trend test and Kruskal-Wallis test. These statistical tests were performed using R ver. 4.0.3. Results: The number of varicella outbreaks increased from 2016 to 2018; however, after a slight decrease in the number of outbreaks in 2019, the number fell sharply in 2020. The median size of outbreaks decreased from 8 to 9 cases during 2016−2019 to 6 cases in 2020. The median duration of outbreaks was 18 days during 2016−2017, 28 days in 2018, 29 days in 2019, and 15 days in 2020. Varicella outbreaks occurred most frequently in elementary schools, and vaccination coverage of patients increased from 89.4% in 2016 to 97.2% in 2019. The median age of patients with outbreak-related varicella decreased from 8 years in 2016 to 6 years in 2020. Conclusion: Significant changes were observed in the age of patients with outbreak-related varicella. Ongoing monitoring of varicella outbreaks should be conducted. Further research will be needed to measure the disease burden of varicella and enable evidence-based policy decisions.
COVID-19 outbreak response at a nursing hospital in South Korea in the post-vaccination era, including an estimation of the effectiveness of the first shot of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S)
Chanhee Kim, Geon Kang, Sun Gu Kang, Heeyoung Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):114-122.   Published online April 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0262
  • 2,104 View
  • 69 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We descriptively reviewed a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak at a nursing hospital in Gyeonggi Province (South Korea) and assessed the effectiveness of the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine in a real-world population. Methods: The general process of the epidemiological investigation included a public health intervention. The relative risk (RR) of vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was calculated and compared to confirm the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) infection, and vaccine effectiveness was evaluated based on the calculated RR. Results: The population at risk was confined to ward E among 8 wards of Hospital X, where the outbreak occurred. This population comprised 55 people, including 39 patients, 12 nurses, and 4 caregivers, and 19 cases were identified. The RR between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was 0.04, resulting in a vaccine effectiveness of 95.3%. The vaccination rate of the nonpatients in ward E was the lowest in the entire hospital, whereas the overall vaccination rate of the combined patient and non-patient groups in ward E was the third lowest. Conclusion: The first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (ChAdOx1-S) was effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. To prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in medical facilities, it is important to prioritize the vaccination of healthcare providers.

Citations

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  • COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Past, Present, and the Way Forward
    Eliel Nham, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Short Communication
COVID-19 outbreak and risk factors for infection in a taekwondo gym in the Republic of Korea
Seung Hwan Shin, Eonjoo Park, Sookhyun Kim, Minji Jang, Subin Park, Dong-Hwi Kim, Tae Jong Son, Ji-Hyuk Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):162-170.   Published online March 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0295
  • 1,979 View
  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Relatively few studies have assessed risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public facilities used by children and adolescents. This study presents an analysis of a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred in a taekwondo gym in Korea, predominantly among children and adolescents, with the aim of providing insights on managing COVID-19 outbreaks in similar facilities. Methods: All 108 taekwondo gym students and staff received COVID-19 tests. A survey and closed-circuit television analyses were used to identify risk factors. A univariate analysis was conducted, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward elimination for variables with a significance level <0.10 in the univariate analysis. Results: COVID-19 was confirmed in 30 of 108 subjects at the taekwondo gym (attack rate, 27.8%). The outbreak started in an adult class student. This student transmitted the virus to the staff, who consequently transmitted the virus to adolescent students. In the univariate analysis, the relative risk for younger age (≤9 years) was 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–4.54; p=0.054), and that for food consumption inside the gym was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.04–4.30; p=0.048). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for younger age was 2.96 (95% CI, 1.07–8.20; p=0.036), and that for food consumption inside the gym was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.10–8.17; p=0.032). Conclusion: Food consumption inside the facility and young age were significant risk factors for COVID-19 transmission in this taekwondo gym. Food consumption should be prohibited in sports facilities, and infection prevention education for young students is also required.
Original Articles
Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Republic of Korea in 2020
Jiyeon Yang, Yunhyung Kwon, Jaetae Kim, Yoojin Jang, Jiyeon Han, Daae Kim, Hyeran Jeong, Hyekyung Park, Eunhye Shim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(5):293-303.   Published online September 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0063
  • 4,802 View
  • 153 Download
  • 6 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We investigated the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on tuberculosis (TB) management in the Republic of Korea (ROK).
Methods
This retrospective cross-sectional study used nationwide ROK TB notification data (98,346 cases) from 2017 to 2020. The median time from the onset of TB symptoms to treatment initiation and the compliance rates with the required timing for notification and individual case investigations were measured and compared across periods and regions affected by the COVID-19 epidemic.
Results
TB diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic was delayed. The median time to TB treatment initiation (25 days) in 2020 increased by 3 days compared to that of the previous 3 years (22 days) (p<0.0001). In the outbreak in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi province during August, the time to TB diagnosis was 4 days longer than in the previous 3 years (p=0.0303). In the outbreak in Daegu and Gyeongbuk province from February to March 2020, the compliance rate with the required timing for individual case investigations was 2.2%p points lower than in other areas in 2020 (p=0.0148). For public health centers, the rate was 13%p lower than in other areas (80.3% vs. 93.3%, p=0.0003).
Conclusion
TB diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic in the ROK were delayed nationwide, especially for patients notified by public-private mix TB control hospitals. TB individual case investigations were delayed in regional COVID-19 outbreak areas (Daegu and Gyeongbuk province), especially in public health centers. Developing strategies to address this issue will be helpful for sustainable TB management during future outbreaks.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Tuberculosis: Republic of Korea, 2021
    Jinsoo Min, Hyung Woo Kim, Ju Sang Kim
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.2023; 86(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Increased Healthcare Delays in Tuberculosis Patients During the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic in Korea: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
    Jinsoo Min, Yousang Ko, Hyung Woo Kim, Hyeon-Kyoung Koo, Jee Youn Oh, Yun-Jeong Jeong, Hyeon Hui Kang, Kwang Joo Park, Yong Il Hwang, Jin Woo Kim, Joong Hyun Ahn, Yangjin Jegal, Ji Young Kang, Sung-Soon Lee, Jae Seuk Park, Ju Sang Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Time trend prediction and spatial–temporal analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Guizhou Province, China, during 2014–2020
    Wang Yun, Chen Huijuan, Liao Long, Lu Xiaolong, Zhang Aihua
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Real-world association of adherence with outcomes and economic burden in patients with tuberculosis from South Korea claims data
    Sun-Hong Kwon, Jin Hyun Nam, Hye-Lin Kim, Hae-Young Park, Jin-Won Kwon
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Tuberculosis Case Notification and Treatment Outcomes in Eswatini
    Hloniphile Victory Masina, I-Feng Lin, Li-Yin Chien
    International Journal of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trends in incidences of newly notified tuberculosis in Jeju Province, Korea, 2017-2021
    Jinhee Kim, Nam-Hun Kang, Jong-Myon Bae
    Journal of Medicine and Life Science.2022; 19(3): 103.     CrossRef
Trends in recent waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks in South Korea, 2015–2019
Sang Hyuk Lee, Jae-Won Yun, Ji Hee Lee, Yeon Haw Jung, Dong Han Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):73-79.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.04
  • 4,190 View
  • 138 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019.
Methods
The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study.
Results
The number of outbreaks has steadily increased over the last 5 years, but the number of cases per outbreak has followed a decreasing trend. Incidence at daycare centers and preschools has been steadily increasing over consecutive years.
Conclusion
The steady number of patients and decreasing number of cases per outbreak, even as the number of outbreaks has been increasing, suggest that the KCDC’s professional management system is operating effectively. It is necessary to continue improving the objectivity and efficiency of the management system and to carefully examine the increasing number of outbreaks in smaller-scale group catering facilities, such as daycare centers and preschools. Outbreaks can be prevented by closely examining those caused by unidentified pathogens and group outbreaks caused by other diseases, identifying problems, and supplementing the management system.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ultrasensitive quantification of pathogens in milliliters of beverage by filtration-based digital LAMP
    Yuhua Yan, Tao Yang, Zisheng Luo, Dong Li, Li Li, Xingyu Lin
    Food Chemistry.2023; 408: 135226.     CrossRef
  • 2022년 하절기 수인성 및 식품매개감염병 비상방역체계 운영결과
    다슬 김, 인호 김, 형준 김, 지애 심, 지수 원, 진 곽
    Public Health Weekly Report.2023; 16(2): 36.     CrossRef
  • Survival of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus in bottled drinking water, strawberries, and oysters
    Ziwei Zhao, Md Iqbal Hossain, Soontag Jung, Zhaoqi Wang, Daseul Yeo, Mengxiao Song, Ae Min, Sunho Park, Changsun Choi
    Food Control.2022; 133: 108623.     CrossRef
  • Trends in gastrointestinal infections before and during non-pharmaceutical interventions in Korea in comparison with the United States
    Soyeoun Kim, Jinhyun Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022011.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Identification of Bacillus Isolated from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) and Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius) Feces by Using an SNP-Based 16S Ribosomal Marker
    Md-Mafizur Rahman, Sang-Jin Lim, Yung-Chul Park
    Animals.2022; 12(8): 979.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Acute Gastroenteritis through the Pathogen Surveillance System in Incheon Metropolitan City, 2018-2021
    Jung Hee Kim, Sung Min Song, Ju Hee Kim, Soo Min Lim, Su Jin Park, Hwa Jung Nam, Young Woo Gong, Mun Ju Kwon
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2022; 52(2): 54.     CrossRef
Alarm Thresholds for Pertussis Outbreaks in Iran: National Data Analysis
Yousef Alimohamadi, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Manoochehr Karami, Mehdi Yaseri, Mojtaba Lotfizad, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):309-318.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.07
  • 3,814 View
  • 54 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of the current study was to determine the upper threshold number of cases for which pertussis infection would reach an outbreak level nationally in Iran.

Methods

Data on suspected cases of pertussis from the 25th February 2012 to the 23rd March 2018 from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Iran was used. The national upper threshold level was estimated using the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) method and the Poisson regression method.

Results

In total, 2,577 (33.6%) and 1,714 (22.3%) cases were reported in the Spring and Summer respectively. There were 1,417 (18.5%) and 1,971 (25.6%) cases reported in the Autumn and Winter, respectively. The overall upper threshold using the EWMA and the Poisson regression methods, was estimated as a daily occurrence of 8 (7.55) and 7.50 (4.48–11.06) suspected cases per 10,000,000 people, respectively. The daily seasonal thresholds estimated by the EWMA and the Poisson regression methods were 10, 7, 6, 8 cases and 10, 7, 7, 9 cases for the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, respectively.

Conclusion

The overall and seasonal estimated thresholds by the 2 methods were similar. Therefore, the estimated thresholds of 6–10 cases in a day, per 10,000,000 people could be used to detect pertussis outbreaks and epidemics by health policymakers.

Citations

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  • Immunogenicity and Safety of a Newly Developed Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid (Td) in Healthy Korean Adolescents: a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Active-Controlled Phase 3 Trial
    Ui Yoon Choi, Ki Hwan Kim, Jin Lee, Byung Wook Eun, Hwang Min Kim, Kyung-Yil Lee, Dong Ho Kim, Sang Hyuk Ma, Jina Lee, Jong-Hyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
2019 Tabletop Exercise for Laboratory Diagnosis and Analyses of Unknown Disease Outbreaks by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Il-Hwan Kim, Jun Hyeong Jang, Su-Kyoung Jo, Jin Sun No, Seung-Hee Seo, Jun-Young Kim, Sang-Oun Jung, Jeong-Min Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Hye-Kyung Park, Eun-Jin Kim, Jun Ho Jeon, Myung-Min Choi, Boyeong Ryu, Yoon Suk Jang, Hwami Kim, Jin Lee, Seung-Hwan Shin, Hee Kyoung Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Ye Eun Park, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Sang-Won Lee, Myung-Guk Han, Gi-Eun Rhie, Byung Hak Kang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):280-285.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.03
  • 4,219 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published “A Guideline for Unknown Disease Outbreaks (UDO).” The aim of this report was to introduce tabletop exercises (TTX) to prepare for UDO in the future.

Methods

The UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April 2018, assigned unknown diseases into 5 syndromes, designed an algorithm for diagnosis, and made a panel list for diagnosis by exclusion. Using the guidelines and laboratory analyses for UDO, TTX were introduced.

Results

Since September 9th, 2018, the UDO Laboratory Analyses Task Force has been preparing TTX based on a scenario of an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus. In December 2019, through TTX, individual missions, epidemiological investigations, sample treatments, diagnosis by exclusions, and next generation sequencing analysis were discussed, and a novel coronavirus was identified as the causal pathogen.

Conclusion

Guideline and laboratory analyses for UDO successfully applied in TTX. Conclusions drawn from TTX could be applied effectively in the analyses for the initial response to COVID-19, an ongoing epidemic of 2019 – 2020. Therefore, TTX should continuously be conducted for the response and preparation against UDO.

Brief Reports
Enhancing ‘Whole-of-Government’ Response to Biological Events in Korea: Able Response 2014
Sangwoo Tak, Anton Jareb, Suon Choi, Marvin Sikes, Yeon Hwa Choi, Hyeong-wook Boo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):32-35.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.06
  • 3,844 View
  • 34 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Since 2011, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and United States (U.S.) have been collaborating to conduct inter- and intra-governmental exercises to jointly respond to biological events in Korea. These exercises highlight U.S. interest in increasing its global biosurveillance capability and the ROK’s interest in improving cooperation among ministries to respond to crises. With Able Response (AR) exercises, the ROK and U.S. have improved coordination among US and ROK government and defense agencies responding to potential bio-threats and identified additional areas on which to apply refinements in policies and practices. In 2014, the AR exercise employed a Biosurveillance Portal (BSP) to facilitate more effective communication among participating agencies and countries including Australia. In the present paper, we seek to provide a comprehensive assessment of the AR 2014 (AR14) exercise and make recommendations for future improvements. Incorporating a more realistic response in future scenarios by integrating a tactical response episode in the exercise is recommended.

Citations

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  • Whole of government and whole of society approaches: call for further research to improve population health and health equity
    Flaminia Ortenzi, Robert Marten, Nicole B Valentine, Aku Kwamie, Kumanan Rasanathan
    BMJ Global Health.2022; 7(7): e009972.     CrossRef
  • Biodefence research two decades on: worth the investment?
    Carrie M Long, Andrea Marzi
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases.2021; 21(8): e222.     CrossRef
Emergence of Norovirus GII.17-associated Outbreak and Sporadic Cases in Korea from 2014 to 2015
Sunyoung Jung, Bo-Mi Hwang, HyunJu Jung, GyungTae Chung, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Deog-Yong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(1):86-90.   Published online February 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.1.12
  • 3,037 View
  • 22 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Human norovirus are major causative agent of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis. In general, genogroup (G) II.4 is the most prominent major genotype that circulate in human population and the environment. However, a shift in genotypic trends was observed in Korea in December 2014. In this study, we investigated the trend of norovirus genotype in detail using the database of Acute Diarrhea Laboratory Surveillance (K-EnterNet) in Korea. GII.17 has since become a major contributor to outbreaks of norovirus-related infections and sporadic cases in Korea, although the reason for this shift remain unknown.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Epidemiology of Norovirus Outbreaks Reported to the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System, China, 2014–2017
    Yiyao Lian, Shuyu Wu, Li Luo, Bin Lv, Qiaohong Liao, Zhongjie Li, Jeanette J. Rainey, Aron J. Hall, Lu Ran
    Viruses.2019; 11(4): 342.     CrossRef
  • Nearly Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 Strain Isolated from Brazil in 2015
    Cristina Santiso-Bellón, Azahara Fuentes-Trillo, Juliana da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Carolina Monzó, Susana Vila-Vicent, Roberto Gozalbo Rovira, Javier Buesa, Felipe J. Chaves, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Jelle Matthijnssens
    Microbiology Resource Announcements.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Development of SNP Markers for Norovirus Related FUT2 Gene in Oyster
    守泉 闫
    Hans Journal of Biomedicine.2019; 09(03): 135.     CrossRef
  • Research on the contamination levels of norovirus in food facilities using groundwater in South Korea, 2015–2016
    Jeong Su Lee, In Sun Joo, Si Yeon Ju, Min Hee Jeong, Yun-Hee Song, Hyo Sun Kwak
    International Journal of Food Microbiology.2018; 280: 35.     CrossRef
  • Norovirus GII.17 Associated with a Foodborne Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreak in Brazil, 2016
    Juliana da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Tulio Machado Fumian, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Alexandre Madi Fialho, Sergio Mouta, Cristiane Mendes Pereira Santiago, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
    Food and Environmental Virology.2018; 10(2): 212.     CrossRef
  • Phylogenetic characterization of norovirus strains detected from sporadic gastroenteritis in Seoul during 2014–2016
    Young Eun Kim, Miok Song, Jaein Lee, Hyun Jung Seung, Eun-Young Kwon, Jinkyung Yu, Youngok Hwang, Taeho Yoon, Tae Jun Park, In Kyoung Lim
    Gut Pathogens.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The prevalence of non-GII.4 norovirus genotypes in acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Jinan, China
    Lanzheng Liu, Hengyun Guan, Ying Zhang, Chunrong Wang, Guoliang Yang, Shiman Ruan, Huailong Zhao, Xiuyun Han, Adriana Calderaro
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(12): e0209245.     CrossRef
Occurrence of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant-related Outbreaks in Korea
Sunyoung Jung, Bo-Mi Hwang, Hyun Ju Jeong, Gyung Tae Chung, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Yeon-Ho Kang, Deog-Yong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(5):322-326.   Published online October 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.10.004
  • 2,073 View
  • 17 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Human noroviruses are major causative agents of food and waterborne outbreaks of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we report the epidemiological features of three outbreak cases of norovirus in Korea, and we describe the clinical symptoms and distribution of the causative genotypes. The incidence rates of the three outbreaks were 16.24% (326/2,007), 4.1% (27/656), and 16.8% (36/214), respectively. The patients in these three outbreaks were affected by acute gastroenteritis. These schools were provided unheated food from the same manufacturing company. Two genotypes (GII.3 and GII.4) of the norovirus were detected in these cases. Among them, major causative strains of GII.4 (Hu-jeju-47-2007KR-like) were identified in patients, food handlers, and groundwater from the manufacturing company of the unheated food. In the GII.4 (Hu-jeju-47-2007KR-like) strain of the norovirus, the nucleotide sequences were identical and identified as the GII.4 Sydney variant. Our data suggests that the combined epidemiological and laboratory results were closely related, and the causative pathogen was the GII.4 Sydney variant strain from contaminated groundwater.

Citations

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  • A systematic review and meta-analysis indicates a substantial burden of human noroviruses in shellfish worldwide, with GII.4 and GII.2 being the predominant genotypes
    Yijing Li, Liang Xue, Junshan Gao, Weicheng Cai, Zilei Zhang, Luobing Meng, Shuidi Miao, Xiaojing Hong, Mingfang Xu, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang
    Food Microbiology.2023; 109: 104140.     CrossRef
  • Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in 2017–2019 in Tianjin, China
    Yulian Fang, Yanzhi Zhang, Hong Wang, Ouyan Shi, Wei Wang, Mengzhu Hou, Lu Wang, Jinying Wu, Yu Zhao
    Journal of Medical Virology.2022; 94(2): 616.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of potential infectivity of human norovirus in the traditional Korean salted clam product “Jogaejeotgal” by floating electrode-dielectric barrier discharge plasma
    Eun Bi Jeon, Man-Seok Choi, Ji Yoon Kim, Eun Ha Choi, Jun Sup Lim, Jinsung Choi, Kwang Soo Ha, Ji Young Kwon, Sang Hyeon Jeong, Shin Young Park
    Food Research International.2021; 141: 110107.     CrossRef
  • Characterizing the effects of thermal treatment on human norovirus GII.4 viability using propidium monoazide combined with RT-qPCR and quality assessments in mussels
    Eun Bi Jeon, Man-Seok Choi, Ji Yoon Kim, Kwang Soo Ha, Ji Young Kwon, Sung Hyeon Jeong, Hee Jung Lee, Yeoun Joong Jung, Ji-Hyoung Ha, Shin Young Park
    Food Control.2020; 109: 106954.     CrossRef
  • Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II norovirus infections in acute gastroenteritis patients during 2014–2016 in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China
    Caoyi Xue, Lifeng Pan, Weiping Zhu, Yuanping Wang, Huiqin Fu, Chang Cui, Lan Lu, Sun Qiao, Biao Xu
    Gut Pathogens.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Review: Epidemiological evidence of groundwater contribution to global enteric disease, 1948–2015
    Heather M. Murphy, Morgan D. Prioleau, Mark A. Borchardt, Paul D. Hynds
    Hydrogeology Journal.2017; 25(4): 981.     CrossRef
  • Change in Concentrations of Human Norovirus and Male-Specific Coliphage under Various Temperatures, Salinities, and pH Levels in Seawater
    Poong Ho Kim, Yong Soo Park, Kunbawui Park, Ji Young Kwon, Hong Sik Yu, Hee Jung Lee, Ji Hoe Kim, Tae Seek Lee
    Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.2016; 49(4): 454.     CrossRef
  • Norovirus outbreaks occurred in different settings in the Republic of Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(5): 281.     CrossRef
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and the Current State of Vaccine Development
Joo Eun Hong, Kee-Jong Hong, Woo Young Choi, Won-Ja Lee, Yeon Hwa Choi, Chung-Hyeon Jeong, Kwang-il Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(6):378-382.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.09.006
  • 2,274 View
  • 15 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus.Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment.It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

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Original Articles
Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):34-39.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.004
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  • 17 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Food- and water-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the trends in FBDOs in Korea and established emerging causal pathogens and causal vehicles.
Methods
We analyzed FBDOs in Korea by year, location, causal pathogens, and causal vehicles from 2007 to 2012. Information was collected from the FBDOs database in the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Results
During 2007–2012, a total of 1794 FBDOs and 48,897 patients were reported. After 2007, FBDOs and patient numbers steadily decreased over the next 2 years and then plateaued until 2011. However, in 2012, FBDOs increased slightly accompanied by a large increase in the number of affected patients. Our results highlight the emergence of norovirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli other than enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in schools in 2012. We found that pickled vegetables is an emerging causal vehicle responsible for this problem.
Conclusion
On the basis of this study we recommend intensified inspections of pickled vegetable manufacturers and the strengthening of laboratory surveillance of relevant pathogens.

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The First Outbreak of Giardiasis with Drinking Water in Korea
Hyeng-Il Cheun, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Da-Won Ma, Bo-La Goo, Mun-Su Na, Seung-Ki Youn, Won-Ja Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(2):89-92.   Published online April 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.03.003
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  • 18 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To identify the pathogen of the diarrhea outbreak in a village in Jeollabuk province in Korea in April 2010.
Methods
DNA extraction was performed from the 120 L of collected water, which was centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 30 min. PCR reactions were conducted in a total of 25 ul, which included PCR premix (GenDEPOT, Barker, TX, USA), 2 ul (∼100 ng) of extracted DNA, and 10 pmol of each primer.
Results
Nine people out of 25 had a symptom of abdominal pain accompanied by diarrhea after they used stored valley water in a water tank as a provisional water supply source without chlorine sterilization. Among them Giardia lamblia was detected in fecal samples of 7 people using the polymerase chain reaction method. Although G. lamblia was also detected from water provided by the provisional water supply system stored in the water tank and used as drinking water, it was not detected in the water tank itself. This water-borne outbreak is considered to have occurred when the provisional water supply tube was destroyed under a building construction and contaminated by G. lamblia, but its precise cause has not been clarified.
Conclusion
This outbreak resulting from G. lamblia is very meaningful as the first outbreak of an infection by a water-borne parasite in Korea.

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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives