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Original Article
COVID-19 transmission: a rapid systematic review of current knowledge
Panagiotis Mourmouris, Lazaros Tzelves, Christiana Roidi, Anastasia Fotsali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):54-63.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.02
  • 5,238 View
  • 230 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify the potential and definite sources of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
Due to time constraints and the acute nature of the pandemic, we searched only PubMed/Medline from inception until January 28, 2021. We analyzed the level of evidence and risk of bias in each category and made suggestions accordingly.
Results
The virus was traced from its potential origin via possible ways of transmission to the last host. Symptomatic human-to-human transmission remains the driver of the epidemic, but asymptomatic transmission can potentially contribute in a substantial manner. Feces and fomites have both been found to contain viable virus; even though transmission through these routes has not been documented, their contribution cannot be ruled out. Finally, transmission from pregnant women to their children has been found to be low (up to 3%).
Conclusion
Even though robust outcomes cannot be easily assessed, medical personnel must maintain awareness of the main routes of transmission (via droplets and aerosols from even asymptomatic patients). This is the first attempt to systematically review the existing knowledge to produce a paper with a potentially significant clinical impact.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Should We Interfere with the Interleukin-6 Receptor During COVID-19: What Do We Know So Far?
    Alexia Plocque, Christie Mitri, Charlène Lefèvre, Olivier Tabary, Lhousseine Touqui, Francois Philippart
    Drugs.2023; 83(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation the efficacy and safety of N‐acetylcysteine inhalation spray in controlling the symptoms of patients with COVID‐19: An open‐label randomized controlled clinical trial
    Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Morteza Rahimi, Abbas Samim, Amir Vahedian‐Azimi, Stephen L. Atkin, Amirhossein Sahebkar
    Journal of Medical Virology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bayesian network-based spatial predictive modelling reveals COVID-19 transmission dynamics in Eswatini
    Wisdom M. D. Dlamini, Sabelo P. Simelane, Nhlanhla M. Nhlabatsi
    Spatial Information Research.2022; 30(1): 183.     CrossRef
  • Fetal inflammatory response syndrome and postnatal multi-system inflammatory syndrome in COVID-19-positive neonates
    Meenakshi S. KUSHWAH, Arunkrishnan BALARAVI, Lakshmi VENUGOPALAN, Sreekanth RAMASHENOY, Anita CHRISBINA, Monisha PRABHAKARN, Sumaiya ALAUDDIN, Munmun SAHNEY, Manoj K. DEENADAYALAN, Prakash PETCHIMUTHU
    Minerva Respiratory Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Articles
A diversity of Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp. in a Public Transportation System
Pamela J. Yeh, Dawn M. Simon, Jess A. Millar, H. Forrest Alexander, Darleen Franklin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(3):202-209.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.047
  • 2,675 View
  • 17 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Our goal was to determine the diversity and abundance of Staphylococcus bacteria on different components of a public transportation system in a mid-sized US city (Portland, Oregon) and to examine the level of drug resistance in these bacteria.
Methods
We collected 70 samples from 2 cm × 4 cm sections from seven different areas on buses and trains in Portland, USA, taking 10 samples from each area. We isolated a subset of 14 suspected Staphylococcus spp. colonies based on phenotype, and constructed a phylogeny from16S rRNA sequences to assist in identification. We used the Kirbye–Bauer disk diffusion method to determine resistance levels to six common antibiotics.
Results
We found a range of pathogenic Staphylococcus species. The mean bacterial colony counts were 97.1 on bus and train floors, 80.1 in cloth seats, 9.5 on handrails, 8.6 on seats and armrests at bus stops, 3.8 on the underside of seats, 2.2 on windows, and 1.8 on vinyl seats per 8 cm2 sample area. These differences were significant (p < 0.001). Of the 14 isolates sequenced, 11 were staphylococci, and of these, five were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, while only two displayed intermediate resistance to bacitracin. All 11 isolates were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and tetracycline.
Conclusions
We found six different strains of Staphylococcus, and while there were varying levels of drug resistance, we did not find extensive levels of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and no S. aureus was found. We found floors and cloth seats to be areas on buses and trains that showed particularly high levels of bacteria.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Bacterial and fungal isolation from face masks under the COVID-19 pandemic
    Ah-Mee Park, Sundar Khadka, Fumitaka Sato, Seiichi Omura, Mitsugu Fujita, Kazuki Hashiwaki, Ikuo Tsunoda
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Characteristics, and Epidemiology of Microbial Hand Contamination Among Minnesota State Fair Attendees (2014)
    Meghan R. Mason, Bozena M. Morawski, Ruby L. Bayliss, Fatuma M. Noor, Sagal H. Jama, Connie L. Clabots, James R. Johnson
    Frontiers in Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and dissemination risk of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from shared bikes in Beijing, China
    Zhi-Yu Zou, Lei Lei, Qi-Yan Chen, Yong-Qiang Wang, Chang Cai, Wan-Qi Li, Zan Zhang, Bing Shao, Yang Wang
    Environment International.2019; 132: 105119.     CrossRef
  • The presence of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal isolates outside of a major hospital in London, United Kingdom
    Adi Idris, Ron R. Cutler
    Central European Journal of Public Health.2019; 27(4): 340.     CrossRef
  • Intermediate Levels of Antibiotics May Increase Diversity of Colony Size Phenotype in Bacteria
    Lewis Lee, Van M. Savage, Pamela J. Yeh
    Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal.2018; 16: 307.     CrossRef
  • A molecular epidemiological study of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcienvironmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations in Guangzhou of China
    J.L. Lin, Y. Peng, Q.T. Ou, D.X. Lin, Y. Li, X.H. Ye, J.L. Zhou, Z.J. Yao
    Letters in Applied Microbiology.2017; 64(2): 131.     CrossRef
  • Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry to Identify Drug Resistant Staphylococcal Isolates from Nonhospital Environments in Brunei Darussalam
    Ko S. Chong, Siti A. Shazali, Zhen Xu, Ronald R. Cutler, Adi Idris
    Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Disea.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef
  • Non-hospital environment contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: proportion meta-analysis and features of antibiotic resistance and molecular genetics
    Jialing Lin, Dongxin Lin, Ping Xu, Ting Zhang, Qianting Ou, Chan Bai, Zhenjiang Yao
    Environmental Research.2016; 150: 528.     CrossRef
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in public transportation vehicles (buses): Another piece to the epidemiologic puzzle
    Jonathan K. Lutz, Joany van Balen, John Mac Crawford, John R. Wilkins, Jiyoung Lee, Rocio C. Nava-Hoet, Armando E. Hoet
    American Journal of Infection Control.2014; 42(12): 1285.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance of Airborne Staphylococcus Isolated from Metro Stations
    Feng Zhou, Yuyan Wang
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2013; 10(6): 2412.     CrossRef
  • Is the Public Transportation System Safe from a Public Health Perspective?
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2011; 2(3): 149.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives