Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
18 "obesity"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles
Original Articles
Sex differences in weight perception and weight gain among Black college students in the USA
Jounghee Lee, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, James Heimdal, Beatrice Nelson, Beom-Young Cho, Elizabeth Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):96-104.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.07
  • 2,606 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and to explore sex differences in body weight perceptions and correlates of weight gain among Black students at 2 historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the USA.
Methods
Participants completed a paper-based survey, and their height and weight were measured (67% completion rate).
Results
The overweight and obesity rates were 33.8% and 26.9%, respectively. More females than males accurately assessed their weight (p<0.05). Body weight underestimation was associated with male sex, excellent/very good perceived overall health, and not being informed by a doctor of having overweight or obesity (p<0.01). Higher odds of ≥5% weight gain were related to female sex, living on campus, and not being informed by a doctor of having overweight or obesity (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Given the high overweight and obesity rates among Black students, HBCUs in the USA should develop intervention strategies for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. College health educators at HBCUs need to provide regular check-ups or health screenings that help male students perceive their weight accurately and prevent weight underestimation. It is important for HBCUs to monitor and address weight gain among Black students as early as possible.
Risk Factors in Early Life for Preschool Children in Korea that are Associated with Being Overweight or Obese
Jin Suk Ra, Hyun Jung Yun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(1):15-26.   Published online February 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.04
  • 3,387 View
  • 114 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study addressed the risk factors in early life for Korean preschool children that are associated with being overweight or obese.

Methods

A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study, which included 507 mothers with preschool children aged 3–5 years, who attended daycare centers. Data were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire completed by the mothers. Of the 650 questionnaires that were distributed, 507 (78%) were completed and sent back. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors in early life, which may contribute to being overweight or obese in preschool children.

Results

Fifty-eight (11.4%) preschool children were overweight and 41 (8.1%) were obese. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates, revealed a significant association with the introduction of solid foods before 4 months of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 9.49, p = 0.029] and a nonresponsive feeding style (aOR = 2.80, p = 0.043) with being overweight or obese in preschool children.

Conclusion

The findings of this study highlighted the need for parenting education programs on feeding practices to increase their understanding of hunger and satiety cues in infants, and appropriate timing for the introduction of solid foods.

Multilevel Analysis of Socio-Demographic Disparities in Adulthood Obesity Across the United States Geographic Regions
Baksun Sung, Amin Etemadifar
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(3):137-144.   Published online June 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.3.04
  • 2,842 View
  • 43 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine the socio-demographic disparities in obesity among US adults across 130 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.

Methods

This study used data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trend of 159,827 US adults aged 18 years and older. Data were analyzed using the multilevel linear regression models.

Results

According to individual level analyses, socio-demographic disparities in obesity exist in the United States. Individuals with low socioeconomic status were associated with a higher body mass index. The participants from the Midwest United States tend to have higher body mass index than those who from the South. According to metropolitan and micropolitan statistical area level analyses, secondly, there were significant differences in obesity status between different areas and the relation of obesity with 5 socio-demographic factors varied across different areas. According to geospatial mapping analyses, even though obesity status by metropolitan and micropolitan statistical area level has improved overtime, differences in body mass index between United States regions are increasing from 2007 to 2015.

Conclusion

Socio-demographic and regional disparities in obesity status persist among US adults. Hence, these findings underscore the need to take socio-environmental factors into account when planning obesity prevention on vulnerable populations and areas.

Short Communication
Percentage Body Fat is As a Good Indicator for Determining Adolescents Who Are Overweight or Obese: A Cross-Sectional Study in Vietnam
Le Thu Trang, Nguyen Nam Trung, Dinh-Toi Chu, Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):108-114.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.10
  • 3,060 View
  • 48 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To identify trends in percentage body fat (PBF) in adolescents to determine gender-specific classification thresholds for being overweight and obese.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 899 adolescents (11 to 14.5 years) from Hanoi and Nam Dinh was conducted in Vietnam. PBF, subcutaneous fat and percentage of lean mass were measured directly using OMRON HBF 375 scales to measure bioelectrical impedance.

Results

PBF decreased in boys with increasing age (p < 0.001). The difference in PBF between boys and girls, significantly increased with age after 12.5 years (p < 0.001). There was a stronger correlation between PBF and fat content (Pearson’s r = 0.860, p < 0.0001) than that between (BMI) and fat content (Pearson’s r = 0.521, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of being overweight or obese in girls was similar when determined by PBF or BMI. Hanoi had higher rates of adolescents being overweight or obese compared with Nam Dinh.

Conclusion

PBF provides a more accurate body assessment for being overweight or obese in adolescents compared with BMI.

Original Articles
Comparison of Foot Structure, Function, Plantar Pressure and Balance Ability According to the Body Mass Index of Young Adults
Se-Yeon Park, Du-Jin Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):102-107.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.09
  • 3,109 View
  • 174 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared foot arch height, plantar fascia thickness, a range of motion assessments of the ankle joint, strength of the ankle joint, plantar pressure, and balance between obese and normal weight young adults.

Methods

Fifty-two participants were required for the present study design to achieve 80% power, 0.8 effect size (η2), and an alpha level of 0.05. The participants were categorized to normal weight or obese groups based on BMI (≤ 24 kg/m2 and ≥ 25 kg/m2, respectively). The foot and ankle disability index and Sport survey were completed by the participants before the measurements. Foot arch height was measured using the navicular drop test, and plantar fascia thickness was measured using ultrasound. Plantar pressure and balance tests were also conducted, followed by ankle joint range of motion and strength tests.

Results

Foot arch height and plantar fascia thickness was significantly higher in the obese group compared with the normal weight group (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in eversion of ankle strength, plantar pressure in the big toe and heel and anterior-posterior balance between normal and obese weight groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Obese young adults had more abnormalities in the medial longitudinal arch, plantar fascia, and plantar pressure as well as weakened ankle eversion strength and balance problems compared with the normal weight group.

Obesity, Hypertension, and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Interrelationships and the Determinants among Adults in Gaza City, Palestine
Mohammed S. Ellulu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):289-298.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.02
  • 2,934 View
  • 110 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To describe the distribution of social factors, lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements according to hypertension and Type-2 diabetes.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gaza City, Palestine that included 379 patients (20–60 years) who had hypertension and/or diabetes. Three groups of patients were involved; 106 hypertensive (HT), 109 diabetic (T2DM) and 164 hypertensive diabetics (HT + T2DM).

Results

The HT + T2DM group were older and had a higher body mass index compared to HT and T2DM groups. There were 62.3% patients who were female, 49.2% were highly educated HT patients, and 49.3% patients had a low level of education and were HT + T2DM. There were 55.8% patients who lived in large families. Patients who were passive smokers or never smoked before were mostly HT + T2DM, while active smokers and past smokers had T2DM. There were 48.2% patients who were highly physically active who had HT, 40.9% whom were moderately active had T2DM, and 53.8% of patients who had a low level of activity were HT + T2DM. Multivariate linear regression showed that having a diseased mother, living in a large family, being a past or passive smoker, or never having smoked, having a low or moderate level of activity, and having HT or HT + T2DM, were significantly associated with an increased body mass index.

Conclusion

Parental health/disease conditions and environmental factors (social network and lifestyle habits) played the greatest role in the development of obesity and disease.

Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Obesity: Findings from the Korea Media Panel Study
Jihyung Shin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):207-212.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.10
  • 6,097 View
  • 83 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

There is evidence to suggest that sedentary behavior is associated with a higher risk of metabolic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional joint associations of physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST), with the risk of obesity in Korean adults.

Methods

The Korea Media Panel Study consisted of a household interview and a self-administered diary survey on media usage over 3 days. ST (hours/day) was defined as the reported daily average hours spent watching television, computing (i.e., desktop, notebook, netbook, tablets), smartphone and video game console use. Cross-sectional associations of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and the amount of daily ST and PA were examined by logistic regression models adjusting for other possible confounders including alcohol consumption, smoking, depressive symptoms and demographic information. There were 7,808 participants included in the analyses.

Results

Increased ST was significantly associated with the risk of obesity (controlling for other possible confounders), but PA level was not found to be significantly linked. Participants who engaged in screen time > 6 hours per day had a higher incidence of obesity.

Conclusion

This study provides evidence of the association between ST and the increased incidence of obesity measured by BMI, independent of PA amongst Korean adults.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity Levels in Korean Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2015
Kwanjun Park, Sunmi Lim, Yoonhyung Park, Woong Ju, Yoonhee Shin, Hansol Yeom
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):150-159.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.03
  • 2,891 View
  • 32 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The increase in the obesity rate in adult males in Korea is higher than countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and other Asian countries. We examined the trends and prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease by evaluating the weight status amongst adults from 2007 to 2015.

Methods

The study included 37,402 adults, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors were estimated for each body mass index group.

Results

From 2007 to 2015, significant increases in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were observed in normal weight adults (0.03 percentage point (%p), 0.06%p, and 0.13%p, respectively). Amongst the overweight and obese adults, a significant increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was observed, During this period, the prevalence of smoking decreased amongst obese adults and no significant changes in drinking habits and physical activity were noted across all body mass index groups.

Conclusion

The prevalence of obesity in Korean adults is increasing, and it is necessary to implement interventions to prevent further weight gain and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease.

Study on Cardiopulmonary Function, Maximal Oxygen Uptake, and Obesity Index according to Smoking Status in Middle-Aged and Older Office Workers
Deok-Ju Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(3):95-100.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.3.02
  • 2,397 View
  • 106 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To investigate the effect of smoking upon cardiopulmonary function, maximal oxygen uptake, and obesity index, in middle-aged and older workers to propose guidelines on healthcare for these age groups.

Methods

This study analyzed medical data from 2,753 white-collar workers aged 50 years or older from workplaces located in Seoul, South Korea. Blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) of each subject were measured. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0.

Results

In the smoking group BP and resting heart rate were significantly higher than in the non-smoking and smoking-cessation groups (p < 0.05). In addition, VO2max was lower in the smoking group compared to the other 2 groups. BP closely correlated with resting heart rate, abdominal fat ratio, and BMI. BMI was the highest in the group that stopped smoking and, BMI and abdominal fat ratio negatively correlated with VO2max.

Conclusion

Smoking increases the risk of cardiopulmonary disease but obesity may be caused by stopping smoking. Therefore, healthcare guidelines on smoking cessation should also include nutritional advice.

Effect of Obesity on Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Middle-Aged Korean Women
Won-Mok Son, Do-Yeon Kim, You-Sin Kim, Min-Seong Ha
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(6):369-372.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.6.02
  • 2,014 View
  • 35 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Our study aims to provide basic scientific data on the importance of obesity management in middle-aged Korean women by analyzing its effects on blood pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition, we examined the correlations of these two parameters.

Methods

The study participants were 40 middle-aged female volunteers, who were classified into obesity group (n = 20) and normal weight group (n = 20). Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to correlate blood pressure and arterial stiffness.

Results

This study evaluated the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV). These results were higher in the obesity group than the normal weight group. Furthermore, blood pressure and arterial stiffness (PWV, augmentation pressure) were static correlated.

Conclusion

Obesity is closely related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness. Therefore, indices for blood pressure and arterial stiffness may play a vital role in predicting and preventing obesity and its sequelae.

Childhood Obesity Is a High-risk Factor for Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case-control Study in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh, Le Thi Tuyet, Duong Thi Anh Dao, Yang Tao, Dinh-Toi Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):138-146.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.06
  • 2,307 View
  • 31 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and obesity status among Viet-namese adolescents.

Methods

In this case-control study, 282 adolescents (6–11 years), including 88 obese cases and 194 normal-weight controls, were recruited from a population-based cross-sectional study from two provinces in Vietnam. The anthropometric, blood lipid, and other laboratory test results of the study subjects were analyzed.

Results

Obese children tended to have more visceral fat (Pearson’s r = 0.795, p < 0.0001) than subcutaneous fat (Pearson’s r = 0.754, p < 0.0001), and this difference was associated with an increase in blood triglyceride level (Pearson’s r = 0.232, p < 0.05) and a strikingly high rate of hypertriglyceridemia (38.6%). We also found that birth weight and parental body mass index were related to the status of obesity among the study subjects. However, only birth weight was significantly higher in the obese group than in the normal weight group. These findings indicate the effect of prenatal nutrition on childhood obesity. Furthermore, high-birth weight children had a surprisingly high rate of obesity.

Conclusion

Together, our data suggest that obesity increased the risk for hypertriglyceridemia, which was, at least partially, due to prenatal nutrition.

Influence of Obesity on Postural Stability in Young Adults
Sung Min Son
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(6):378-381.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.10.001
  • 1,409 View
  • 17 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with less postural stability in young adults, and whether it is influenced by anterior pelvic tilt angle and sensory dysfunction.
Methods
Center of gravity (COG) velocity and total sway distance with eyes open or eyes closed on firm or foam floors were determined in 12 obese individuals and 12 individuals with normal weight.
Results
On firm and foam floors with eyes closed, center of gravity velocity and total sway distance were significantly greater in the obese group than in the normal-weight group. However, on firm and foam floors with eyes open, center of gravity velocity and total sway distance were not significantly different in the two groups.
Conclusion
The clinical implication of our findings is that obese young adults exhibit poor postural stability. Our findings also suggested that postural instability in obese individuals is associated with increased lordosis due to abdominal fat and poor integration of plantar somatosensory input.
Does Skipping Breakfast and Being Overweight Influence Academic Achievement Among Korean Adolescents?
Yang Wha Kang, Jong-Hyock Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):220-227.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.004
  • 1,448 View
  • 22 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Health status and health behaviors are associated with academic achievement in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skipping breakfast and being overweight are related to academic achievement of Korean adolescents.
Methods
Cross-sectional data on a sample of 1,652 high-school seniors (942 males and 710 females) drawn from the 2004 Korea Education Employment Panel were analyzed.
Results
A higher proportion of males (15.3%) than females (6.1%) was overweight (p < 0.001); 37% of males and 41% of females reported skipping breakfast. Overall test scores were significantly higher for females than males (p < 0.05), and in language and foreign language subjects. However, both males and females who reported skipping breakfast had significantly lower scores in language, mathematics, and foreign language than those who did not report skipping breakfast. Overweight males had a lower probability than normal-weight males of having the highest language scores (OR = 0.52, p < 0.05), but there was no difference among females. Females who skipped breakfast had a lower probability of having the highest scores in language (OR = 0.41, p < 0.05), mathematics (OR = 0.24, p < 0.01), or foreign language (OR = 0.18, p < 0.01), while males had a lower probability of having the highest scores in language only (OR = 0.46, p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Skipping breakfast and being overweight are associated with poor academic achievement in Korean adolescents. Eating breakfast and weight control is being discussed as the overlooked factors that may influence better academic achievement.
Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children
Hae Ok Kim, Gyo Nam Kim, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):121-125.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.007
  • 1,464 View
  • 36 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology.
Methods
A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results.
Results
There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.”
Conclusion
The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
Experiences in Healthy Dieting of Male College Students with Obesity in Korea
Jeong Soo Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):59-63.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.11.008
  • 1,336 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to describe and understand experiences of healthy dieting in male college students with obesity.
Methods
The interview data were collected from nine male students and analyzed by using descriptive phenomenology of Colaizzi. The procedural steps described the phenomenon of interest, collected participants' descriptions of the phenomenon, extracted the meaning of significant statements, organized the meanings into clusters, wrote exhaustive descriptions, and then incorporated data into an exhaustive description.
Results
The findings in 246 restatements, 47 constructed meanings, 31 themes, eight theme clusters, and four categories were deduced. The four categories were “Uneasiness at interpersonal relationships”, “Developing durability in dieting strategies”, “Practicing healthy diets based on information”, and “Perceived on healthy diets as a whole health support strategies”.
Conclusion
This study described experiences in healthy dieting of male college students who were discharged from military services. These findings have important implications for understanding healthy dieting in young men and must be considered in developing health promotion in youth.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives