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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Original Article
Estimating the prevalence of oral manifestations in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review
Ankita Gupta, Kriti Shrivastav, Amit Agrawal, Abhishek Purohit, Roshan Chanchlani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):388-417.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0033
  • 4,113 View
  • 111 Download
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with a variety of oral manifestations. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of oral lesions among COVID-19 patients. Methods: An extensive literature search of several electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Litcovid) was conducted to retrieve all articles published in the English language from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2023 that reported the prevalence of oral manifestations among COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis of pooled prevalence was performed using Jamovi ver. 2.3 (2022). The I2 and Q statistics were used to assess heterogeneity between studies, and p-values <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results: In total, 79 studies with data from 13,252 patients were included. The articles were predominantly published in 2020 (n=33), and Italy was the most common country (n=14). Most of the affected patients more than 50 years old and women (56.6%). The most common sites of involvement were the tongue (n=65), followed by the oral mucosa (n=37) and lips (n=19). High heterogeneity was found between studies. The most common oral manifestation was taste alteration, followed by xerostomia and ulceration, showing pooled prevalence rates of 48%, 35%, and 21%, respectively. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients show various oral manifestations that may help clinicians identify the disease promptly. Recognition of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 is critical for an early diagnosis and better prognosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pathology and cell tropism in tongue tissues of COVID-19 autopsies
    Longda Ma, Qian Liu, Manli Wang, Liang Liu, Zhihong Hu, Yiwu Zhou, Jia Liu
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Article
The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center: a cornerstone for strengthening safety evidence for COVID-19 vaccination in the Republic of Korea
Na-Young Jeong, Hyesook Park, Sanghoon Oh, Seung Eun Jung, Dong-Hyun Kim, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Hee Chul Han, Jong-Koo Lee, Jun Hee Woo, Jaehun Jung, Joongyub Lee, Ju-Young Shin, Sun-Young Jung, Byung-Joo Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):97-106.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0343
  • 1,642 View
  • 78 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Committee (CoVaSC) was established in November 2021 to address the growing need for independent, in-depth scientific evidence on adverse events (AEs) following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. This initiative was requested by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and led by the National Academy of Medicine of Korea. In September 2022, the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center was established, strengthening CoVaSC’s initiatives. The center has conducted various studies on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. During CoVaSC’s second research year, from September 29, 2022 to July 19, 2023, the center was restructured into 4 departments: Epidemiological Research, Clinical Research, Communication & Education, and International Cooperation & Policy Research. Its main activities include (1) managing CoVaSC and the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center, (2) surveying domestic and international trends in AE causality investigation, (3) assessing AEs following COVID-19 vaccination, (4) fostering international collaboration and policy research, and (5) organizing regular fora and training sessions for the public and clinicians. Causality assessments have been conducted for 27 diseases, and independent research has been conducted after organizing ad hoc committees comprising both epidemiologists and clinical experts on each AE of interest. The research process included protocol development, data analysis, interpretation of results, and causality assessment. These research outcomes have been shared transparently with the public and healthcare experts through various fora. The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center plans to continue strengthening and expanding its research activities to provide reliable, high-quality safety information to the public.
Brief Report
Isolation and identification of monkeypox virus MPXV-ROK-P1-2022 from the first case in the Republic of Korea
Jin-Won Kim, Minji Lee, Hwachul Shin, Chi-Hwan Choi, Myung-Min Choi, Jee Woong Kim, Hwajung Yi, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gi-Eun Rhie
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):308-311.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0232
  • 6,247 View
  • 142 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Monkeypox outbreaks in nonendemic countries have been reported since early May 2022. The first case of monkeypox in the Republic of Korea was confirmed in a patient who traveled to Europe in June 2022, and an attempt was made to isolate and identify the monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the patient’s specimens.
Methods
Clinical specimens from the patient were inoculated in Vero E6 cells. The isolated virus was identified as MPXV by the observation of cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells, transmission electron microscopy, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing of PCR products.
Results
Cytopathic effects were observed in Vero E6 cells that were inoculated with skin lesion swab eluates. After multiple passages from the primary culture, orthopoxvirus morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, both MPXV-specific (F3L and ATI) and orthopoxvirus-specific genes (A39R, B2R, and HA) were confirmed by conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing.
Conclusion
These results indicate the successful isolation and identification of MPXV from the first patient in the Republic of Korea. The isolated virus was named MPXV-ROK-P1-2022.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ultrasensitive one-pot detection of monkeypox virus with RPA and CRISPR in a sucrose-aided multiphase aqueous system
    Yue Wang, Yixin Tang, Yukang Chen, Guangxi Yu, Xue Zhang, Lihong Yang, Chenjie Zhao, Pei Wang, Song Gao, Frederick S. B. Kibenge, Ruijie Deng, Wei Chen, Shuang Yang
    Microbiology Spectrum.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological, Clinical, and Virological Investigation of the First Four Cases of Monkeypox in Cartagena during the 2022 Outbreak
    Steev Loyola, Mashiel Fernández-Ruiz, Doris Gómez-Camargo
    Pathogens.2023; 12(2): 159.     CrossRef
  • 원숭이두창바이러스의 분리 배양과 전장유전체 정보 분석
    민지 이, 진원 김, 치환 최, 화철 신, 명민 최, 상은 이, 화중 이, 윤석 정
    Public Health Weekly Report.2023; 16(15): 464.     CrossRef
  • Overview of Diagnostic Methods, Disease Prevalence and Transmission of Mpox (Formerly Monkeypox) in Humans and Animal Reservoirs
    Ravendra P. Chauhan, Ronen Fogel, Janice Limson
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(5): 1186.     CrossRef
  • How to cope with suspected mpox patients in the outpatient clinic
    Nam Joong Kim, Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(5): 325.     CrossRef
  • An Updated Review on Monkeypox Viral Disease: Emphasis on Genomic Diversity
    Ali A. Rabaan, Nada A. Alasiri, Mohammed Aljeldah, Abeer N. Alshukairiis, Zainab AlMusa, Wadha A. Alfouzan, Abdulmonem A. Abuzaid, Aref A. Alamri, Hani M. Al-Afghani, Nadira Al-baghli, Nawal Alqahtani, Nadia Al-baghli, Mashahed Y. Almoutawa, Maha Mahmoud
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(7): 1832.     CrossRef
  • Monkeypox (Mpox) virus isolation and ultrastructural characterisation from a Brazilian human sample case
    Milene Dias Miranda, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Vivian Neuza Ferreira, Ortrud Monika Barth, Aline de Paula Dias da Silva, Mayara Secco Torres Silva, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso, Thiago Moreno Souza, Edson Elias da Silva, Debora Ferreira Ba
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Isolation and Characterization of Monkeypox Virus from the First Case of Monkeypox — Chongqing Municipality, China, 2022
    Baoying Huang, Hua Zhao, Jingdong Song, Li Zhao, Yao Deng, Wen Wang, Roujian Lu, Wenling Wang, Jiao Ren, Fei Ye, Houwen Tian, Guizhen Wu, Hua Ling, Wenjie Tan
    China CDC Weekly.2022; 4(46): 1019.     CrossRef
Review Articles
Yersinia pestis antibiotic resistance: a systematic review
Chen Lei, Suresh Kumar
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(1):24-36.   Published online February 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0288
  • 8,308 View
  • 268 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague and a potential biological weapon, has always been a threatening pathogen. Some strains of Y. pestis have varying degrees of antibiotic resistance. Thus, this systematic review was conducted to alert clinicians to this pathogen’s potential antimicrobial resistance. A review of the literature was conducted for experimental reports and systematic reviews on the topics of plague, Y. pestis, and antibiotic resistance. From 1995 to 2021, 7 Y. pestis isolates with 4 antibiotic resistance mechanisms were reported. In Y. pestis 17/95, 16/95, and 2180H, resistance was mediated by transferable plasmids. Each plasmid contained resistance genes encoded within specific transposons. Strain 17/95 presented multiple drug resistance, since plasmid 1202 contained 10 resistance determinants. Strains 16/95 and 2180H showed single antibiotic resistance because both additional plasmids in these strains carried only 1 antimicrobial determinant. Strains 12/87, S19960127, 56/13, and 59/13 exhibited streptomycin resistance due to an rpsl gene mutation, a novel mechanism that was discovered recently. Y. pestis can acquire antibiotic resistance in nature not only via conjugative transfer of antimicrobial-resistant plasmids from other bacteria, but also by gene point mutations. Global surveillance should be strengthened to identify antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains by whole-genome sequencing and drug susceptibility testing.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seek and you shall find: Yersinia enterocolitica in Ireland’s drinking water
    James Powell, Maureen Daly, Nuala H. O’Connell, Colum P. Dunne
    Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -).2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A novel sORF gene mutant strain of Yersinia pestis vaccine EV76 offers enhanced safety and improved protection against plague
    Xiao Guo, Youquan Xin, Zehui Tong, Shiyang Cao, Yuan Zhang, Gengshan Wu, Hongyan Chen, Tong Wang, Yajun Song, Qingwen Zhang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du, Gregory P. Priebe
    PLOS Pathogens.2024; 20(3): e1012129.     CrossRef
  • Interaction between Yersinia pestis Ail Outer Membrane Protein and the C-Terminal Domain of Human Vitronectin
    Laurine Vasseur, Florent Barbault, Antonio Monari
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B.2024; 128(16): 3929.     CrossRef
  • Integrated Computational Analysis of Physicochemical Features, Biological Properties, Kinase Target Prediction and Biotransformation Pathways in Drug Discovery
    Mohamed Sabri Bensaad, Dhiya Eddine Bensaad, Mohamed Amine Kahoul, Dania S. Waggas, Roua S. Baty, Rokayya Sami, Hamsa Jameel Banjer, Siraj B. Alharthi, Ruqaiah I. Bedaiwi, Zeyad M. Alharbi, Mohammad A. Alanazi, Nouf H. Alsubhi, Ashwaq M. Al-Nazawi, Nada A
    International Journal of Pharmacology.2024; 20(5): 748.     CrossRef
  • Rapid Induction of Protective Immunity against Pneumonic Plague by Yersinia pestis Polymeric F1 and LcrV Antigens
    Moshe Aftalion, Avital Tidhar, Yaron Vagima, David Gur, Ayelet Zauberman, Tzvi Holtzman, Arik Makovitzki, Theodor Chitlaru, Emanuelle Mamroud, Yinon Levy
    Vaccines.2023; 11(3): 581.     CrossRef
  • Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: broad-spectrum drug target identification using subtractive genomics
    Umairah Natasya Mohd Omeershffudin, Suresh Kumar
    Genomics & Informatics.2023; 21(1): e5.     CrossRef
  • Polyclonal Antibodies Derived from Transchromosomic Bovines Vaccinated with the Recombinant F1-V Vaccine Increase Bacterial Opsonization In Vitro and Protect Mice from Pneumonic Plague
    Sergei S. Biryukov, Hua Wu, Jennifer L. Dankmeyer, Nathaniel O. Rill, Christopher P. Klimko, Kristi A. Egland, Jennifer L. Shoe, Melissa Hunter, David P. Fetterer, Ju Qiu, Michael L. Davies, Christoph L. Bausch, Eddie J. Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Christopher
    Antibodies.2023; 12(2): 33.     CrossRef
  • New Bacteriophages with Podoviridal Morphotypes Active against Yersinia pestis: Characterization and Application Potential
    Tamar Suladze, Ekaterine Jaiani, Marina Darsavelidze, Maia Elizbarashvili, Olivier Gorge, Ia Kusradze, Tamar Kokashvili, Nino Lashkhi, George Tsertsvadze, Nino Janelidze, Svetlana Chubinidze, Marina Grdzelidze, Shota Tsanava, Eric Valade, Marina Tediashvi
    Viruses.2023; 15(7): 1484.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of Mu-Like Yersinia Phages Exhibiting Temperature Dependent Infection
    Biao Meng, Zhizhen Qi, Xiang Li, Hong Peng, Shanzheng Bi, Xiao Wei, Yan Li, Qi Zhang, Xiaoqing Xu, Haihong Zhao, Xiaoyan Yang, Changjun Wang, Xiangna Zhao, Olaya Rendueles
    Microbiology Spectrum.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes lack the virulence-associated Ypf Φ prophage present in modern pandemic strains
    Joanna H. Bonczarowska, Julian Susat, Ben Krause-Kyora, Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, Jesper Boldsen, Lars Agersnap Larsen, Lone Seeberg, Almut Nebel, Daniel Unterweger
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sci.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A situation analysis of the current plague outbreak in the Demographic Republic of Congo and counteracting strategies – Correspondence
    Ranjit Sah, Abdullah Reda, Rachana Mehta, Ranjan K. Mohapatra, Kuldeep Dhama
    International Journal of Surgery.2022; 105: 106885.     CrossRef
  • Antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: identification of bacterial DNA adenine methyltransferase as a novel drug target from hypothetical proteins using subtractive genomics
    Umairah Natasya Mohd Omeershffudin, Suresh Kumar
    Genomics & Informatics.2022; 20(4): e47.     CrossRef
Psychiatric adverse events associated with the COVID-19 vaccines approved in the Republic of Korea: a systematic review
Seungeun Ryoo, Miyoung Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Jun Hee Woo, Byung-Joo Park, Sanghoon Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):107-114.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0325
  • 1,629 View
  • 77 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
This systematic review evaluated psychiatric adverse events (AEs) following vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We included studies that reported or investigated psychiatric AEs in individuals who had received an approved COVID-19 vaccine in the Republic of Korea. Systematic electronic searches of Ovid-Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and KoreaMed databases were conducted on March 22, 2023. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies 2.0. The study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42023449422). Of the 301 articles initially selected, 7 were included in the final analysis. All studies reported on sleep disturbances, and 2 highlighted anxiety-related AEs. Sleep disorders like insomnia and narcolepsy were the most prevalent AEs, while depression was not reported. Our review suggests that these AEs may have been influenced by biological mechanisms as well as the broader psychosocial context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this study had limitations, such as a primary focus on the BNT162b2 vaccine and an observational study design, it offered a systematic, multi-vaccine analysis that fills a critical gap in the existing literature. This review underscores the need for continued surveillance of psychiatric AEs and guides future research to investigate underlying mechanisms, identify risk factors, and inform clinical management.
Original Article
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission during a movie theater outbreak in Incheon in the Republic of Korea, November 2021: a retrospective study
Hye Young Lee, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Eun Lee, Han-Na Yoo, Il-Hwan Kim, Jin Sun No, Eun-Jin Kim, Jungyeon Yu, Sanghwan Bae, Mi Yu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):45-55.   Published online January 31, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0269
  • 11,332 View
  • 343 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We examined factors contributing to the transmission of an acute respiratory virus within multi-use facilities, focusing on an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a movie theater in the Republic of Korea. Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved a descriptive analysis of 48 confirmed cases. Logistic regression was applied to a cohort of 80 theater attendees to identify risk factors for infection. The infection source and transmission route were determined through gene sequencing data analysis. Results: Of the 48 confirmed cases, 35 were theater attendees (72.9%), 10 were family members of attendees (20.8%), 2 were friends (4.2%), and 1 was an employee (2.1%). Among the 80 individuals who attended the 3rd to 5th screenings of the day, 35 became infected, representing a 43.8% attack rate. Specifically, 28 of the 33 third-screening attendees developed confirmed SARSCoV-2, constituting an 84.8% attack rate. Furthermore, 11 of the 12 cases epidemiologically linked to the theater outbreak were clustered monophyletically within the AY.69 lineage. At the time of the screening, 35 individuals (72.9%) had received 2 vaccine doses. However, vaccination status did not significantly influence infection risk. Multivariate analysis revealed that close contacts had a 15.9-fold higher risk of infection (95% confidence interval, 4.37–78.39) than casual contacts. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurred within the theater, and extended into the community, via a moviegoer who attended the 3rd screening during the viral incubation period after contracting the virus from a family member. This study emphasizes the importance of adequate ventilation in theaters.
Commentary
Challenges in capacity building of national immunization programs and emergency or pandemic vaccination responses in the Global Health Security Agenda member countries
Sookhyun Lee, Jung Ju Oh, Sang Hyun Park, Dasol Ro, Ye Jin Jeong, So Yoon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):182-185.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0159
  • 1,273 View
  • 150 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract PDF
Brief Report
The effectiveness of Paxlovid treatment in long-term care facilities in South Korea during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2
Hanul Park, Young Joon Park, Hye Young Lee, Mi Yu, Yeong-Jun Song, Sang Eun Lee, Ji-Joo Lee, Eun-Sol Lee, Yeonjung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(6):443-447.   Published online December 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0262
  • 4,104 View
  • 221 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
On November 5, 2021, Pfizer Inc. announced Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir +ritonavir) asa treatment method that could reduce the risk of hospitalization or death for patients withconfirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: From February 6, 2022 to April 2, 2022, the incidence of COVID-19 and the effectsof treatment with Paxlovid were analyzed in 2,241 patients and workers at 5 long-term carefacilities during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 in South Korea.Results: The rate of severe illness or death in the group given Paxlovid was 51% lower thanthat of the non-Paxlovid group (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.24−0.98). Compared to unvaccinated patients, patients who had completed 3 doses of thevaccine had a 71% reduced rate of severe illness or death (aRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13−0.64) and a65% reduced death rate (aRR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15−0.79).Conclusion: Patients given Paxlovid showed a lower rate of severe illness or death and alower fatality rate than those who did not receive Paxlovid. Patients who received 3 dosesof the vaccine had a lower rate of severe illness or death and a lower fatality rate than theunvaccinated group.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and safety of antiviral treatments for symptomatic COVID-19 outpatients: Systematic review and network meta-analysis
    Meital Zur, Thalia Peselev, Stav Yanko, Victoria Rotshild, Ilan Matok
    Antiviral Research.2024; 221: 105768.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Effectiveness of Ritonavir-Boosted Nirmatrelvir—A Literature Review
    Sydney Paltra, Tim O. F. Conrad
    Advances in Respiratory Medicine.2024; 92(1): 66.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of nirmatrelvir‐ritonavir on severe outcomes of COVID‐19 in the era of vaccination and Omicron: An updated meta‐analysis
    Sien Ombelet, Diego Castanares‐Zapatero, Fabian Desimpel, Frank Hulstaert, Sabine Stordeur, Dominique Roberfroid
    Journal of Medical Virology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological evolution and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the European Union and worldwide and effects of control strategies on them: An ecological study
    J.A. Caylà, J.M. Bellmunt, J.M. Jansà, A. Marco, J.P. Millet
    Medicina de Familia. SEMERGEN.2024; 50(6): 102274.     CrossRef
  • COVID‐19 infection in patients with haematological malignancies: A single‐centre survey in the latest Omicron wave in China
    Xiaolu Zhu, Qian Jiang, Jin Lu, Yuqian Sun, Xiaosu Zhao, Shenmiao Yang, Feifei Tang, Wenjing Yu, Ting Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Jinsong Jia, Wenbing Duan, Lijuan Hu, Jing Wang, Yang Liu, Nan Peng, Xuelin Dou, Rui Ma, Qiang Fu, Huifang Wang, Kaiyan Liu, Xiaojun
    British Journal of Haematology.2023; 202(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • The association mental health of adolescents with economic impact during the COVID-19 pandemic: a 2020 Korean nationally representative survey
    Hanul Park, Kang-Sook Lee
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of paxlovid (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) in the treatment of COVID‐19: An updated meta‐analysis and trial sequential analysis
    Haokun Tian, Changsen Yang, Tiangang Song, Kechen Zhou, Lequan Wen, Ye Tian, Lirui Tang, Weikai Xu, Xinyuan Zhang
    Reviews in Medical Virology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Real-World Effectiveness of Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and Its Acceptability in High-Risk COVID-19 Patients
    Min-Kyung Kim, Kyung-Shin Lee, Sin Young Ham, Youn Young Choi, Eunyoung Lee, Seungjae Lee, Bora Lee, Jaehyun Jeon, BumSik Chin, Yeonjae Kim, Gayeon Kim, Hee-Chang Jang, Jae-Phil Choi, Sang-Won Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of Molnupiravir Treatment in Patients with COVID-19 in Korea: A Propensity Score Matched Study
    Hye Rim Park, Min-Gyu Yoo, Jong Mu Kim, Soon Jong Bae, Hyungmin Lee, Jungyeon Kim
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2023; 55(4): 490.     CrossRef
  • Nirmatrelvir combined with ritonavir for preventing and treating COVID-19
    Stefanie Reis, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Rebecca Kuehn, Maria Popp, Ildiko Gagyor, Peter Kranke, Patrick Meybohm, Nicole Skoetz, Stephanie Weibel
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Article
Predictors of outcomes 3 to 12 months after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Younes Iderdar, Maryem Arraji, Nadia Al Wachami, Morad Guennouni, Karima Boumendil, Yassmine Mourajid, Noureddine Elkhoudri, Elmadani Saad, Mohamed Chahboune
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):3-17.   Published online February 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0288
  • 1,790 View
  • 101 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The exact factors predicting outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain elusive. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we examined factors influencing outcomes in adult patients with TBI, from 3 months to 1 year after injury. A search of four electronic databases—PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect—yielded 29 studies for review and 16 for meta-analysis, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. In patients with TBI of any severity, mean differences were observed in age (8.72 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.77–12.66 years), lymphocyte count (−0.15 109/L; 95% CI, −0.18 to −0.11), glucose levels (1.20 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.73–1.68), and haemoglobin levels (−0.91 g/dL; 95% CI, −1.49 to −0.33) between those with favourable and unfavourable outcomes. The prevalence rates of unfavourable outcomes were as follows: abnormal cisterns, 65.7%; intracranial pressure above 20 mmHg, 52.9%; midline shift of 5 mm or more, 63%; hypotension, 71%; hypoxia, 86.8%; blood transfusion, 70.3%; and mechanical ventilation, 90%. Several predictors were strongly associated with outcome. Specifically, age, lymphocyte count, glucose level, haemoglobin level, severity of TBI, pupillary reaction, and type of injury were identified as potential predictors of long-term outcomes.
Original Article
AI-powered COVID-19 forecasting: a comprehensive comparison of advanced deep learning methods
Muhammad Usman Tariq, Shuhaida Binti Ismail
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):115-136.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0287
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  • 52 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose significant challenges to the public health sector, including that of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency and accuracy of various deep-learning models in forecasting COVID-19 cases within the UAE, thereby aiding the nation’s public health authorities in informed decision-making. Methods: This study utilized a comprehensive dataset encompassing confirmed COVID-19 cases, demographic statistics, and socioeconomic indicators. Several advanced deep learning models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), bidirectional LSTM, convolutional neural network (CNN), CNN-LSTM, multilayer perceptron, and recurrent neural network (RNN) models, were trained and evaluated. Bayesian optimization was also implemented to fine-tune these models. Results: The evaluation framework revealed that each model exhibited different levels of predictive accuracy and precision. Specifically, the RNN model outperformed the other architectures even without optimization. Comprehensive predictive and perspective analytics were conducted to scrutinize the COVID-19 dataset. Conclusion: This study transcends academic boundaries by offering critical insights that enable public health authorities in the UAE to deploy targeted data-driven interventions. The RNN model, which was identified as the most reliable and accurate for this specific context, can significantly influence public health decisions. Moreover, the broader implications of this research validate the capability of deep learning techniques in handling complex datasets, thus offering the transformative potential for predictive accuracy in the public health and healthcare sectors.
Review Article
India’s efforts to achieve 1.5 billion COVID-19 vaccinations: a narrative review
Kapil Singh, Ashwani Verma, Monisha Lakshminarayan
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):316-327.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0104
  • 4,373 View
  • 96 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The initial case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India was reported on January 30, 2020, and subsequently, the number of COVID-19-infected patients surged during the first wave of April 2020 and the second wave in the same month of 2021. The government of India imposed a strict nationwide lockdown in April 2020 and extended it until May 2020. The second wave of COVID-19 in India overwhelmed the country’s health facilities and exhausted its medical and paramedical workforce. This narrative review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the evidence drawn from policy documents of governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as capturing India's COVID-19 vaccination efforts. The findings from this review cover the Indian government's vaccination initiatives, which ranged from steps taken to combat vaccine hesitancy to vaccination roadmaps, deployment plans, the use of digital health technology, vaccination monitoring, adverse effects, and innovative strategies such as Har Ghar Dastak and Jan Bhagidari Andolan (people’s participation). These efforts collectively culminated in the successful administration of more than 1.8 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines in India. This review also provides insights into other countries’ responses to COVID-19 and guidance for future pandemics.

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Brief Report
Gender differences in hepatitis A seropositivity rates according to the Republic of Korea’s vaccination policy
Hyunjin Son, Sunhyun Ahn, Wonseo Park, Gayoung Chun, Unyeong Go, Sang Gon Lee, Eun Hee Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):168-173.   Published online April 16, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0263
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to investigate differences in the anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody seropositivity rate by age and gender. Methods: We collected information on anti-HAV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M status from samples submitted for HAV antibody testing in 2012–2022. A total of 1,333,615 cases were included in the analysis. Results: By age, the seropositivity rate was represented by a U-shaped curve, such that the rate was low for the group aged 20 to 39 years and higher in those who were younger or older. Over time, the curve shifted rightward, and the seropositivity rate declined gradually in the group aged 35 to 39 years and older. A gender-based difference in antibody seropositivity rate was especially noticeable in the group aged 20 to 29 years. This difference between genders widened in the participants’ early 20s—when men in the Republic of Korea enlist in the military—and the divergence continued subsequently for older individuals. Conclusion: These results indicate a higher risk of severe infection among older individuals and a gender-based difference in seroprevalence. Therefore, it is necessary to implement policies to promote vaccination in adults.
Data Profile
Establishment of a registry of clinical data and bioresources for rare nervous system diseases
Dayoung Kim, Sooyoung Kim, Jin Myoung Seok, Kyong Jin Shin, Eungseok Oh, Mi Young Jeon, Joungkyu Park, Hee Jin Chang, Jinyoung Youn, Jeeyoung Oh, Eunhee Sohn, Jinse Park, Jin Whan Cho, Byoung Joon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):174-181.   Published online April 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0353
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Rare diseases are predominantly genetic or inherited, and patients with these conditions frequently exhibit neurological symptoms. Diagnosing and treating many rare diseases is a complex challenge, and their low prevalence complicates the performance of research, which in turn hinders the advancement of therapeutic options. One strategy to address this issue is the creation of national or international registries for rare diseases, which can help researchers monitor and investigate their natural progression. In the Republic of Korea, we established a registry across 5 centers that focuses on 3 rare diseases, all of which are characterized by gait disturbances resulting from motor system dysfunction. The registry will collect clinical information and human bioresources from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinocerebellar ataxia, and hereditary spastic paraplegia. These resources will be stored at ICreaT and the National Biobank of Korea. Once the registry is complete, the data will be made publicly available for further research. Through this registry, our research team is dedicated to identifying genetic variants that are specific to Korean patients, uncovering biomarkers that show a strong correlation with clinical symptoms, and leveraging this information for early diagnosis and the development of treatments.
Original Articles
Factors associated with the timely diagnosis of malaria and the utilization of types of healthcare facilities: a retrospective study in the Republic of Korea
HyunJung Kim, Sangwoo Tak, So-dam Lee, Seongwoo Park, Kyungwon Hwang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):159-167.   Published online April 16, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0349
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to analyze trends in the timely diagnosis of malaria cases over the past 10 years in relation to the utilization of different types of healthcare facilities. Methods: The study included 3,697 confirmed and suspected cases of malaria reported between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2022, in the national integrative disease and healthcare management system. Some cases lacking a case report or with information missing from the case report were excluded from the analysis. A generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution was constructed to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for other variables, such as distance. Results: When cases involving diagnosis >5 days after symptom onset in confirmed patients (5DD) were examined according to the type of healthcare facility, the risk ratio of 5DD cases was found to be higher for tertiary hospitals than for public health facilities. Specifically, the risk ratio was higher when the diagnosis was established at a tertiary hospital, even after a participant had visited primary or secondary hospitals. In an analysis adjusted for the distance to each participant’s healthcare facility, the results did not differ substantially from the results of the crude analysis. Conclusion: It is imperative to improve the diagnostic capabilities of public facilities and raise awareness of malaria at primary healthcare facilities for effective prevention and control.
Effect of Paxlovid in COVID-19 treatment during the periods of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 and BN.1 subvariant dominance in the Republic of Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Dong-Hwi Kim, Min-Gyu Yoo, Na-Young Kim, So Young Choi, Minjeong Jang, Misuk An, Se-Jin Jeong, Jungyeon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):137-149.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0230
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly those aged 60 years and older. Using real-world data, the period during which the BN.1 Omicron variant was dominant was compared to the period dominated by the BA.5 variant. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected regarding 2,665,281 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between July 24, 2022, and March 31, 2023. Propensity score matching was utilized to match patients who received nirmatrelvir/ ritonavir in a 1:4 ratio between BN.1 and BA.5 variant groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the effects of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir within these groups. Results: Compared to the prior period, the efficacy of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir did not significantly differ during the interval of Omicron BN.1 variant dominance in the Republic of Korea. Among patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, a significantly lower risk of mortality was observed in the BN.1 group (odds ratio [OR], 0.698; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.557–0.875) compared to the BA.5 group. However, this treatment did not significantly reduce the risk of severe or critical illness, including death, for those in the BN.1 group (OR, 0.856; 95% CI, 0.728–1.007). Conclusion: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir has maintained its effectiveness against COVID-19, even with the emergence of the BN.1 Omicron subvariant. Consequently, we strongly recommend the administration of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir to patients exhibiting COVID-19-related symptoms, irrespective of the dominant Omicron variant or their vaccination status, to mitigate disease severity and decrease the risk of mortality.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives