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Volume 11(4); August 2020
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Editorial
We Cannot Go Back to the Old World, Before Global Pandemic Declaration of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Developing New Normal Practices in Society
Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):147-148.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.01
  • 2,783 View
  • 78 Download
  • 2 Citations
PDF
Review Articles
COVID-19: Weighing the Endeavors of Nations, with Time to Event Analysis
Shine Stephen, Alwin Issac, Jaison Jacob, VR Vijay, Rakesh Vadakkethil Radhakrishnan, Nadiya Krishnan
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):149-157.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.02
  • 3,461 View
  • 93 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The cataclysmic COVID-19 pandemic erupted silently causing colossal impact worldwide, the repercussions of which indicated a lackadaisical vigilance in preparation for such a pandemic. This review assessed the measures taken by nations to contain this pandemic. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and WHO website. There were 8 nations (selected from the GHS index list) appraised for containment strategies. This was achieved by using mortality rate (per million) as the primary endpoint. The nations which were proactive, initiated scientific strategies earlier with rigor, appeared to have succeeded in containing the pandemic, although it is still too early to arbitrate a verdict. The so called “pandemic war” mandates international, interdisciplinary, and interdepartmental collaboration. Furthermore, building trust and confidence between the government and the public, having transparent communication, information sharing, use of advanced research-technology, and plentiful resources are required in the fight against COVID-19.

COVID-19 Public Health Measures During National Assembly Elections of the Republic of Korea
Eun Young Kim, Eun Kyoung Kim, Minwon Lee, Hye Kyung Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):158-163.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.03
  • 2,877 View
  • 75 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

The general elections for the 21st National Assembly in the Republic of Korea were scheduled for April 15th, 2020, which was during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. To ensure a safe election, the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) recommended several public health measures. The KCDC developed key interventions after reviewing the general election strategy that targeted COVID-19 patients and individuals isolating at home. Four voters who participated in the election tested positive, but did not contract COVID-19 during voting. The results demonstrated that the KCDC minimized the spread of infection in the community during the election. The measures implemented by KCDC during the election held under a COVID-19 outbreak cannot be generalized to elections as a whole because cultural and national consciousness vary between countries. Nevertheless, it demonstrates that the systemic strategies and applications against the pandemic can minimize the possibility of viral spread.

Original Articles
COVID-19 in Nursing Facilities: Experience in Republic of Korea
Rok Song, Hee-Sook Kim, Seok-Ju Yoo, Kwan Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Joon Ho Jang, Gyoung-Sook Ahn, Jun-Nyun Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):164-169.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.04
  • 4,138 View
  • 126 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in nursing facilities can easily lead to a high rate of infection and fatality. A surge in newly infected cases in the first quarter of 2020 in Gyeongsan-si, in the Republic of Korea, was followed by several outbreaks in nursing facilities in the same area. The aim of this study is to report on the epidemiological investigation and the management to reduce the infection rate in nursing facilities for older adults.

Methods

The municipal government and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed an epidemiological investigation into 5 nursing facilities that reported a high number of COVID-19 infection cases from February to May 2020. COVID-19 infected cases in the facilities were investigated to identify the infection routes, and the fatality rate of the 5 facilities.

Results

The 5 facilities had a combined fatality rate of 12.2% (9 deceased among the 74 infected cases). The median age of the deceased was 87 years old (range: 82–91). The infection was first identified on February 27th, 2020, peaked on March 6th, and was last detected on March 24th, 2020.

Conclusion

Difficulties specific to such facilities included the delay in the recognition of symptoms and limitation in distancing. Tailored strategies such as daily monitoring of symptoms and proactive COVID-19 screening of quarantined residents, contributed to a decline in the infections in the facilities.

Educational Needs Associated with the Level of Complication and Comparative Risk Perceptions in People with Type 2 Diabetes
Youngji Hwang, Dongsuk Lee, Yeon Sook Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):170-176.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.05
  • 2,830 View
  • 135 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to identify the educational needs of people with type 2 diabetes according to risk perceptions and the level of severity of complications.

Methods

There were 177 study participants who were outpatients of the internal medicine department at a university hospital located in the Republic of Korea, who consented to participate in the survey from December 10, 2016 to February 10, 2017. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, ANOVA with post-hoc comparison, and multiple regression analysis. Type 2 diabetes complications were classified into 3 groups: no complications, common complications, and severe complications.

Results

There were statistically significant positive correlations between educational needs and comparative risk perceptions, and the level of complication and comparative risk perception. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the factor predicting educational needs of type 2 diabetes people was their comparative risk perceptions, rather than the severity of diabetes complications or sociodemographic variables.

Conclusion

Since risk perception is the factor that indicates the educational needs of people with type 2 diabetes, there is a need to explore factors which increase risk perception, in order to meet educational needs. The findings suggest that a more specific and individualized educational program, which focuses on each person's risk perceptions, should be developed.

Epidemiological Characteristics of Field Tick-Borne Pathogens in Gwang-ju Metropolitan Area, South Korea, from 2014 to 2018
Jung Wook Park, Seung Hun Lee, Gi Seong Lee, Jin Jong Seo, Jae Keun Chung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):177-184.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.06
  • 3,216 View
  • 79 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing because of climate change, with a lack of long-term studies on tick-borne pathogens in South Korea. To understand the epidemiological characteristics of tick-borne diseases, the monthly distribution of field ticks throughout the year was studied in South Korea between May 2014 and April 2018 in a cross sectional study.

Methods

The presence of various tick-borne pathogens (Rickettsia species, Borrelia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was confirmed by using polymerase chain reaction, to provide information for a prevention strategy against tick-borne pathogenic infections, through increased understanding of the relationship between seasonal variation and risk of infection with Rickettsia species. This was performed using logistic regression analysis (SPSS 20, IBM, USA) of the data obtained from the study.

Results

During the study period there were 11,717 ticks collected and 4 species identified. Haemapysalis longicornis was the most common species (n = 10,904, 93.1%), followed by Haemapysalis flava (n = 656, 5.6%), Ixodes nipponensis (n = 151, 1.3%), and Amblyomma testudinarium (n = 6, 0.05%) The results of this cross-sectional study showed that Haemapysalis flava carried a higher risk of transmission of Rickettsia species than other tick species (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

In conclusion, due attention should be paid to preventing tick-borne infections in humans whilst engaged in outdoor activities in Spring and Autumn, particularly in places where there is a high prevalence of ticks.

Impact of Cognitive Aging on Health-Related Quality of Life in Menopausal Women
Kyoung Suk Lee, Mi Sook Jung, Mijung Kim, Kyeongin Cha, Eunyoung Chung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):185-193.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.07
  • 3,600 View
  • 86 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Menopause is a well-known risk factor for accelerating cognitive aging in women. This study aimed to assess differences in cognitive function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) according to menopausal status to determine whether the menopause significantly affects the relationship between cognitive function and HRQOL.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional comparative study with a convenience sample of 178 Korean women including 89 naturally menopausal women (65 ± 10 years) and 89 non-menopausal women (45 ± 8 years) who met the eligibility criteria and completed neuropsychological tests and self-report questionnaires about their HRQOL, cognitive function, depression, and sleep quality. Multiple regression analyses were performed within and between groups according to menopausal status.

Results

Menopausal women had significantly worse scores on neuropsychological performance and HRQOL than non-menopausal women. A better neuropsychological performance (β = 0.34) was solely associated with a better HRQOL in menopausal women, whilst socioeconomic variables were associated with HRQOL in non-menopausal women.

Conclusion

Menopause is an important risk factor for HRQOL, and the association between cognition and HRQOL may differ according to menopausal status. When developing programs for target groups to improve daily functioning and HRQOL, healthcare professionals need to pay more attention to this relationship.

Health-Related Quality of Life Based on Comorbidities Among Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease
Jieun Cha, Dallong Han
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):194-200.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.08
  • 3,081 View
  • 76 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate comorbidities in patients with end-stage renal disease, and to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) according to the type, and number of comorbidities.

Methods

A total of 250 adults undergoing hemodialysis were recruited at local clinics. HRQOL was measured using the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and t test.

Results

Around 70.8% of patients with end stage renal disease had 1 or more comorbidities, and the most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. HRQOL was significantly different based on the number of comorbidities (F = 9.83, p < 0.001). The effect of comorbidities on the scores for mental health domains of the HRQOL questionnaire was not conclusive compared with the scores for the physical domain which were conclusive. Among the comorbidities, diabetes was associated with a lower quality of life.

Conclusion

The customized management of diabetic and hypertensive patients is necessary for the early detection and prevention of chronic kidney disease, and slowing the progression of renal disease and managing cardiovascular risk factors is essential.

Secondhand Smoking Among Children in Rural Households: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh
Rishad Choudhury Robin, Narongsak Noosorn, Sheikh Mohammad Alif
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):201-208.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.09
  • 4,414 View
  • 65 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the factors associated with reducing exposure to secondhand smoke among children in households of rural Bangladesh.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 410 smokers and non-smokers, in 6 villages of Munshigonj district was conducted. Data were collected randomly using a self-administrative questionnaire. Differences between variables were assessed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (as appropriate). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate associations. All results were presented as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. The level of statistical significance was reached when p < 0.05.

Results

A smoker in the household was determined to be a risk factor associated with exposure of other household members to secondhand smoke (p < 0.001). Higher education, strict implementation of household smoke-free rules, a higher influence of social norms and culture, as well as moderate knowledge on exposure to secondhand smoke were considered as preventive factors associated with exposure of others in the home to secondhand smoke.

Conclusion

Exposure to secondhand smoke is an extensive and preventable risk factor for children, and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will have a largely positive effect in the community. An effective public health intervention model may reduce secondhand smoking.

Predictors Affecting the Elderly’s Use of Emergency Medical Services
Ju Moon Park, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):209-215.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.10
  • 2,561 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Elderly adults are the demographic most likely to utilize emergency medical services (EMS). This study aimed to examine the difference in EMS utilization in subgroups of the elderly population by assessing the predictors for using EMS.

Methods

Using both descriptive and logistic regression analyses, this study analyses data from the 2014 Korean Health Panel Survey (n = 3,175).

Results

It was observed that certain predisposing factors such as age, sex, and marital status were significant predictors of EMS utilization. However, differences in EMS need do not fully account for the original differences observed between subgroups of elderly Koreans. While health status and disability were important predictors of elderly Koreans using EMS, place of residence did not account for subgroup differences. Nonetheless, place of residence remained particularly important predictors of EMS utilization for the elderly.

Conclusion

Emergency needs and resource availability are 2 main determinants for elderly Koreans using EMS. In addition, it was observed that the demographic subgroup profile of unmarried/divorced/separated/widowed men who were aged 75 and older was least likely to utilize EMS. Improving their resource availability to meet their EMS needs should be a top priority for national policy making to narrow elderly population subgroup differences.

Profiling Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Markers of Enterovirulent Escherichia Coli from Fecal Isolates of Adult Patients with Enteric Infections in West Cameroon
Wiliane J. T. Marbou, Priyanka Jain, Sriparna Samajpati, Gourab Halder, Asish K. Mukhopadhyay, Shanta Dutta, Victor Kuete
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):216-230.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.11
  • 3,293 View
  • 78 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to identify virulent and antimicrobial resistant genes in fecal E. coli in Mbouda, Cameroon.

Methods

A total of 599 fecal samples were collected from patients with enteric infections who were ≥ 20 years old. E. coli was isolated on the MacConkey agar and virulent genes were detected by multiplex/simplex PCR. Isolates in which ≥ 1 virulent gene was detected were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. The resulting resistant isolates were subjected to PCR, followed by sequencing for resistant genes detection.

Results

There were 119 enterovirulent E. coli identified, amongst which 47.05% were atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 36.97% enterotoxigenic E. coli, 10.08% Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) and 5.88% were enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). The occurrence of the eae gene (47.06%) was higher compared with CVD432 (33.61%), aaic (13.45%), stx2 (10.08%) and stx1 (0.84%). High resistance rates were noted for ampicillin (94.64% EPEC, 91.67% STEC, 59.09% EAEC, and 57.14% EIEC) and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (100% EPEC and 83.33% STEC, 81.82% EAEC and 71.43% EIEC). sul2 (71.43%), tetB (64.71%), tetA (59.94%) and blaTEM (52.10%) were detected. A double mutation (S83L; D87N) was seen in gyrA and a single mutation (S80I) was observed in parC.

Conclusion

These findings suggested that measures should be taken to reduce the harm of E. coli to public health.

Relationship Between Assertion and Aggression with Addiction Potential: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2019
Mohammad Amiri, Zakieh Sadeghi, Elham Sadeghi, Ahmad Khosravi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):231-238.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.12
  • 3,185 View
  • 63 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the relationship between assertion and aggression with addiction potential among students in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2019, 500 students of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, were selected by multistage random sampling, for a study using the Addiction Potential Scale, and Assertion and Aggression Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square, t test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and the linear regression model.

Results

The mean scores of addiction potential, aggression, and assertion were 32.7 ± 17.2, 41.5 ± 12.9 and 139.4 ± 22.3, respectively. In this study, 38.8% (N = 194) of students had high aggression and 76.8% (N = 384) had high assertion. In the regression model, aggression, history of drug and addictive substances abuse, history of tobacco use, and history of alcohol abuse were significantly related to addiction potential (p ≤ 0.05). There was a negative relationship between assertion and addiction potential so that with one-unit increase in the assertion score, the addiction potential score decreased by −0.11.

Conclusion

Given the direct relationship between aggression and addiction potential, and since more than three-quarters of the students had moderate to high aggression, it is necessary to pay more attention to this issue. Interventions may play an important role in improving the current situation.

Risk Assessment Program of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza with Deep Learning Algorithm
Hachung Yoon, Ah-Reum Jang, Chungsik Jung, Hunseok Ko, Kwang-Nyeong Lee, Eunesub Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):239-244.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.13
  • 2,880 View
  • 49 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study presents the development and validation of a risk assessment program of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). This program was developed by the Korean government (Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) and a private corporation (Korea Telecom, KT), using a national database (Korean animal health integrated system, KAHIS).

Methods

Our risk assessment program was developed using the multilayer perceptron method using R Language. HPAI outbreaks on 544 poultry farms (307 with H5N6, and 237 with H5N8) that had available visit records of livestock-related vehicles amongst the 812 HPAI outbreaks that were confirmed between January 2014 and June 2017 were involved in this study.

Results

After 140,000 iterations without drop-out, a model with 3 hidden layers and 10 nodes per layer, were selected. The activation function of the model was hyperbolic tangent. Precision and recall of the test gave F1 measures of 0.41, 0.68 and 0.51, respectively, at validation. The predicted risk values were higher for the “outbreak” (average ± SD, 0.20 ± 0.31) than “non-outbreak” (0.18 ± 0.30) farms (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The risk assessment model developed was employed during the epidemics of 2016/2017 (pilot version) and 2017/2018 (complementary version). This risk assessment model enhanced risk management activities by enabling preemptive control measures to prevent the spread of diseases.

Factors Influencing Self-Rated Oral Health in Elderly People Residing in the Community: Results from the Korea Community Health Survey, 2016
Jong-Hoon Moon, Sung-Jin Heo, Jin-Hwa Jung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):245-250.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.14
  • 2,947 View
  • 66 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health in elderly individuals residing in the community.

Methods

This study used raw data from the Korea community health survey, 2016. Of the 64,223 participants that were elderly (aged ≥ 65 years), 61,280 (95.4%) were included for analysis. Self-rated oral health was the dependent variable and 6 independent variables including age, gender, type of area of residence (metropolitan or provincial), educational level, income, and living status with spouse were assessed. Oral function was studied based on mastication, pronunciation, and use of dentures, and oral health behavior included brushing teeth after breakfast, after lunch, after dinner, and before sleep). The EQ-5D questionnaire measured health-related quality of life (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression).

Results

Among the general characteristics, age, gender, educational level, income, and living status with spouse were the factors that affected self-rated oral health. Mastication, pronunciation, use of dentures, and brushing after lunch, dinner, and before sleep were the factors that influenced self-rated oral function. All domains of the EQ-5D (pain/discomfort, mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression) were factors that affected self-rated oral health.

Conclusion

The results of the current investigation suggest that the development of management and education strategies for oral health promotion in the elderly, should focus on improving oral function and oral health behavior, taking into account the socio-economic and demographic characteristics that have been shown to be associated with poor self-rated oral function.

Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Physical Modality Therapy and Exercise Therapy on Neck and Shoulder Myofascial Pain Syndrome
Chan-Myeong Kim, Ji-Won Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):251-258.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.15
  • 3,120 View
  • 88 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The main purpose of this study was to identify the effects of physical therapy modalities and exercise therapy on myofascial pain syndrome by assessing the degree of effect size (ES) and related variables.

Methods

Related studies published between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2019were retrieved from national [KCI, RISS, National Assembly Library and DBpia (n = 405)] and international [PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane library (n = 1,600)] databases. According to the selection criteria, 25 studies were selected for review.

Results

The degree of ES in the physical therapy and exercise therapy combined group (1.83) showed the largest mean ES. The size of the effect according to the number of people to be treated was 41 or more (1.64), and showed the largest mean ES. The size of the effect according to treatment period was 16 to 30 days (1.41). The size of the effect for 6 to 10 treatments (1.51) showed the largest mean ES. Trim and fill results showed that the calibration ES was 0.67.

Conclusion

Physical therapy modalities and exercise therapy had a great effect on myofascial pain syndrome in the neck and shoulders, and the effect differed according to the methods of intervention, and the methods of evaluation.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives